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Tourism Management 24 (2003) 519–532

Passenger expectations and airline services: a Hong Kong based study

David Gilberta,*, Robin K.C. Wongb

a Surrey European Management School, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK

bCathay Pacific Airways Ltd, 2/F, Central Tower, Cathy City, Hong Kong International Airport, Lantau, Hong Kong

Received 3 April 2002; accepted 14 November 2002

Abstract

The airline industry is undergoing a very difficult time and many companies are in search of service segmentation strategies that

will satisfy different target market segments. This study attempts to identify the service dimensions that matter most to current

airline passengers. The research measures and compares differences in passengers’ expectations of the desired airline service quality

in terms of the dimensions of reliability; assurance; facilities; employees; flight patterns; customization and responsiveness. Primary

data were collected from passengers departing Hong Kong airport. Regarding the service dimension expectations, differences

analysis shows that there are no statistically significant differences between passengers who made their own airline choice (decision

makers) and those who did not (non-decision makers). However, there are significant differences among passengers of different

ethnic groups/nationalities as well as among passengers who travel for different purposes, such as business, holiday and visiting

friends/relatives. The findings also indicate that passengers consistently rank ‘assurance’ as the most important service dimension.

This indicates that passengers are concerned about the safety and security aspect and this may indicate why there has been such a

downturn in demand as this study was conducted just prior to the World Trade Center incident on the 11th September 2001.

r 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Airline; Services; Marketing; SERVQUAL; Segments

1. Introduction

It has been suggested that delivering superior service

quality is a prerequisite for success and survival in

today’s competitive business environment. However,

some may feel price is an important aspect of demand.

As Collis (1998), IATA in 1997 carried out research in

North America, Europe and Asia and found passengers

favoured punctuality (65 per cent) and scheduling (52

per cent) over price (37 per cent). This is not to say that

price is of secondary concern to airlines as cost

structures and competitive pricing are always of key

importance but for this study the emphasis is on

improving service strategies. In the airline industry

understanding what passengers expect is essential to

providing desired service quality. However, service

quality research that has focused on airline passengers’

expectations has been limited. This research paper

focuses on the link between customer expectations and

service quality, and demonstrates how an airline can

utilize a measure of different passengers’ expectations as

a diagnostic tool in managing its service quality. This

study takes expectations to be the pre-consumption

beliefs that consumers draw upon as the probabilities of

the occurrence of positive and negative events. Therefore,

they form an important part of the decision process

for an airline. The expectations construct has been

viewed as playing a key role in consumer evaluation of

service quality (Gro¨ nroos, 1994; Parasuraman,

Zeithaml, & Berry, 1985, 1988). Its meaning in the

service quality literature is similar to the ideal standard

in the consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction literature.

Such approaches have been previously researched in the

tourism field. Tourism research utilizing applications of

SERVQUAL has been carried out by a number of

authors (Cunningham, Young, & Lee, 2002; Lam &

Zhang, 1999; Ryan & Cliff, 1997; Bojanic & Rosen,

1994; Saleh & Ryan, 1991).

In reviewing the lessons learned over the last decade

from service quality research there is a strong indication

that improvement in service provides improved profit

due to increasing the customer base through new and

repeat purchases from more loyal customers. Research

has indicated that companies that offer superior service

are able to charge 8 per cent more for their product

ARTICLE IN PRESS

*Corresponding author. Tel.: +44-1483-873-981.

E-mail address: d.gilbert@surrey.ac.uk (D. Gilbert).

0261-5177/03/$ - see front matter r 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/S0261-5177(03)00002-5

(Gale, 1992), while achieving higher-than-normal market

share growth (Buzzell & Gale, 1987) and profitability.

In addition it is realized lowering customer

defection rate can be profitable to airlines. This

approach is reinforced by Johnson, Nader, and Fornell

(1996) who argue cumulative customer satisfaction can

help predict future retention behaviour and profitability.

In the airline industry context the problem is whether

management can perceive correctly what passengers

want and expect. Moreover, expectations serve as

standards or reference points for customers. In evaluating

service quality, passengers compare what they

perceive they get in a service encounter with their

expectations of that encounter. Assessing passenger

expectations is not a static exercise as passengers are

becoming increasingly sensitive to quality. However, not

all service dimensions are equally important to all

passengers, because no two passengers are precisely

alike, especially when demographics; purposes of

travelling and ethnic background is considered.

2. Purchase criteria

In order to produce a valid questionnaire different

studies were examined to find the variables related to

purchase criteria. Bowen and Headley (2000) have

undertaken research on Airline Quality Rating (AQR)

which has met with national and international acceptance

and acknowledgement. The latest report, is based

on attributes that focus on airline performance areas

important to air passengers. All of these attributes are

reported monthly in the Air Travel Consumer Report

maintained by the US Department of Transportation.

They include: On-time arrival; Being ‘bumped’ from a

flight; Mishandled baggage (whether lost, damaged,

delayed or pilferage of baggage) and Airline safety. It

also includes passenger complaints: Flight problems

(e.g. cancellations, delays, deviations from schedule);

Reservations, ticketing, and boarding problems (e.g.

problems in making reservation and obtaining tickets due

to busy telephone lines, queuing); Fares (incorrect or

incomplete information about fares, overcharges, discount

availability); Refunds; Customer service (rude or unhelpful

employees, inadequate meals or cabin service, treatment

of delayed passengers); Advertising (misleading

messages) and Frequent flyer programmes. The AQR

only measures US domestic airlines and some attributes

might not be suitable for some international airlines.

Another department, the US Department of Commerce,

also conducts periodic surveys on international air

travellers’ choice of airlines which includes monitoring

of: schedule; Non-stop flight availability; Safety reputation;

On-time reputation; In-flight service reputation;

Frequent flyer programme. The key purchase criteria of

travellers is a multi-attribute of service based upon:

Frequency of flights; Timings; Punctuality; Good inflight

service and facilities; Good on-ground service and

facilities; Non-stop service; Safety records.

The authors therefore conclude that the literature

indicates passengers regard the following to be important

attributes to delivering superior airline service

quality:

* Reliability in maintaining flight schedules and reservation/

ticketing/in-flight/ground services; Reassurance

by good safety records; Convenient flight

schedules and non-stop service; Correct and prompt

handling of baggage; Friendly and helpful employees;

A beneficial frequent flyer programme.

As the competition among airlines intensifies the

above lists become important guidelines to areas the

airline has to consider in greater detail. These guidelines

informed the questionnaire design of this study.

3. Hypotheses formulation

Some of the differences in expectations of service are

derived from different passenger cultures. Values and

attitudes help to determine what members of a culture

think is desirable. Moreover, consumer behaviour flows

from values and attitudes adopted across cultures and

airline marketers must understand these differences.

This leads to the first hypothesis:

H1: If passengers are of different ethnic groups/

nationalities then there will be significant difference

in their expectations of desired airline service

quality.

The reason this research stresses ‘desired service’ is

because passenger expectations are often dual-level and

dynamic whereby a ‘zone of tolerance’ separates the

‘desired service’ from ‘adequate service’ (Parasuraman

et al., 1991). Simply meeting passenger adequate service

expectations may not be good enough for airlines to

survive the rivalry.

There are two main factors affecting expected desired

service, namely ‘enduring service intensifiers’ and

‘personal needs’ (Zeithaml & Bitner, 1996). One of the

most important enduring service intensifiers is ‘derived

service expectations’ (Zeithaml & Bitner, 1996), which

takes place when another person or group of people

drive passengers’ expectations. For example, a parent

choosing an airline for the family members on a

vacation occasion, his/her individual expectations are

intensified because he/she experiences derived expectations

from other family members who will receive the

airline service too. In addition, he/she might want

to impress the family members, and would blame

ARTICLE IN PRESS

520 D. Gilbert, R.K.C. Wong / Tourism Management 24 (2003) 519–532

himself/herself when dissatisfied. This leads to the

second hypothesis:

H2: If passengers are the decision-makers in choosing

the airline, then their expectations of desired airline

service quality will be significantly different from

those of non-decision-makers.

This research is interested in identifying the difference

in service expectations between decision-makers and

non-decision makers because based on a survey (Cathay

Pacific Airways, 1996–1999), 64 per cent of the

passengers had the ability to make their own airline

selection decision.

Another enduring service intensifier is ‘personal

service philosophy’ (Zeithaml & Bitner, 1996). This

concept coincides with the role of culture in the

passenger’s decision making process, which was discussed

earlier in the first hypothesis (H1). The third

hypothesis is derived from personal needs. There are

three major reasons passengers need to travel: namely

for business, for holiday and to visit friends/relatives,

and it is believed that each group’s expectations would

be different:

H3: If passengers’ needs for travelling are different,

then there will be a significant difference in their

expectations of desired airline service quality.

When monitoring service quality, airlines need to

assess passenger expectations of service. Only when

passengers’ expectations have been met or exceeded by

perceptions are there acceptable levels of satisfaction.

Goodman, Marra, and Brigham (1986) indicated that

it is necessary to identify and prioritize expectations for

service and to incorporate these expectations into

improving service quality. According to their studies

(Parasuraman, Zeithaml, & Berry, 1988), reliability has

repeatedly been rated above all other dimensions.

However, Cronin and Taylor (1992) argued that is

important to be specific as it was posited that what holds

for one type of service may not hold for another. This

leads to the fourth hypothesis:

H4: If desired airline service is measured in terms of

seven dimensions, namely reliability, assurance,

facilities, employees, flight patterns, customization

and responsiveness, then passengers’ expectations

of reliability will be above all the other six

dimensions.

4. Methodology

The research method is a combination of Key

Purchase Criteria formulated by Mason (1995), whereby

a multi-attributes approach to service is formulated

utilizing secondary data on airline service criteria to

inform the questionnaire content, and by the use of

SERVQUAL (Parasuraman et al., 1988, 1991). However

the main approach comes from SERVQUAL.

SERVQUAL is a survey instrument that purports to

measure the quality of service rendered by an institution

along five dimensions: reliability, assurance, tangibles,

empathy and responsiveness (RATER). Assurance and

empathy contain items representing seven original

determinants—communication, credibility, security,

competence, courtesy, understanding/knowing customers,

and access. Therefore, while SERVQUAL has

only five distinct dimensions, they capture facets of all

10 originally conceptualized determinants. The strength

of SERVQUAL is it can measure what the customer

expects from the airline in relation to these dimensions.

In addition the personalization and customization

aspect of service, which is overlooked in other research,

is also advocated in the SERVQUAL model.

5. Concerns regarding SERVQUAL

In their 1988 work, Parasuraman et al. defined

expectations as ‘‘desires or wants of consumers, i.e. what

they feel a service provider should offer rather than

would offer’’. The expectations component was designed

to measure customers’ normative expectations, and is

‘‘similar to the ideal standard in the customer satisfaction/

dissatisfaction literature’’ (Zeithaml & Bitner, 1996).

Teas (1993a, b) found explanations of the desires and

wants of consumers as vague and has questioned

respondents’ interpretation of expectations battery in

the SERVQUAL instrument. He believed that respondents

might be using any one of the following six

interpretations:

* Service attribute importance. Customers may respond

by rating the expectation statements according to the

importance of each.

* Forecasted performance. Customers may respond by

using the scale to predict the performance they would

expect.

* Ideal performance. The optimal performance; what

performance ‘‘can be’’.

* Deserved performance. The performance level customers,

in the light of their investment, feel performance

‘‘should be’’.

* Equitable performance. The level of performance

customers feel they ought to receive given a perceived

set of costs.

* Minimum tolerable performance. What performance

‘‘must be’’.

Each of these interpretations is somewhat different,

and Teas contends that a considerable percentage of the

ARTICLE IN PRESS

D. Gilbert, R.K.C. Wong / Tourism Management 24 (2003) 519–532 521

variance of SERVQUAL expectations measure can be

explained by difference in respondents’ interpretations.

Boulding, Kalra, and Zeithaml (1993) also identify three

types of expectations among respondents’ interpretations:

the will expectation, should expectation, and, ideal

expectation.

Carman (1990) conducted a study of SERVQUAL

across four different industries, and found it necessary

to add as many as 13 additional items (originally 22) to

the instrument in order to adequately capture the service

quality construct in various settings, while at the same

time dropping as many as 14 items from the original

instrument.

Although SERVQUAL has been widely used to

measure service quality across industries no two providers

of service are exactly alike. Therefore, the authors of

this study concluded that an adaptation of SERVQUAL

is needed and it should serve only as a framework for this

research. The instrument is viewed as a basic ‘‘skeleton’’

that requires modification to fit the specific airline

situation and supplemental context-specific items. The

proposed survey for this research did not follow all of the

original 22 SERVQUAL items; instead, items were

modified, added or even deleted when planning the

survey instrument. In addition, the categorization of

the five dimensions was re-defined to fit the situation

of the airline industry. The dimension ‘tangibles’ is too

broad and was therefore broken down into three, namely,

‘facilities’, ‘employees’ and ‘flight patterns’. The dimension

‘empathy’ was renamed as ‘customization’ for

clearer identifications. In their 1989 set of studies,

Parasuraman et al. asked more than 1900 customers of

five different service companies to rate the relative

importance of the five dimensions by allocating 100

points among them, and the result is given in Table 1.

The implication of identifying the relatively more

important service dimension(s) is that, the ‘zone of

tolerance’ (Zeithaml & Bitner, 1996) differs across the

five dimensions passengers use in evaluating the airline

service. In general, the greater a dimension’s importance,

the smaller is its zone of tolerance, reflecting less

passenger willingness to relax assessment of service

standard. According to the studies of Parasuraman et al.

(1985), reliability has been repeatedly shown to be above

all other dimensions. Moreover, reliability largely

concerns the service outcome, i.e., whether the promised

service is delivered. The remaining dimensions relate

more to the service process, i.e., how the service is

delivered.

Therefore, instead of five dimensions, seven dimensions

(reliability, assurance, facilities, employees, flight

patterns, customization and responsive) were identified to

be measured. Specific questions asked were also

modified, deleted or even added to adapt to the airline

industry context. These were validated as will be

discussed later.

5.1. Questionnaire design

The questionnaire is a refinement of the original

SERVQUAL instrument in that the questions were

altered to fit the airline industry. In addition, instead of

measuring both expectations and perceptions the questionnaire

was designed to measure the expectations of

passengers. This serves as a generic guiding framework

for individual airlines when formulating strategies to

monitor and exceed passengers’ expectations.

Part 1 of the questionnaire dealt with specific airline

service criteria relating to the 7 dimensions. Respondents

were asked to rank each question on a scale of 1–8

which tends to avoid the ‘neutral’ central tendency and

can differentiate the various levels of respondents’

expectations more clearly as found in the pilot test.

Each of the 26 questions pertains to one of the

dimensions (see appendix for example of questionnaire).

Part 2 asked respondents to prioritize the dimensions

‘‘in order of importance’’, and provided space for the

respondents to offer comments about desired airline

service. Part 3 gathered demographic information such

as country of origin of the respondent, the purpose of

travelling, in addition, whether he/she is the decisionmaker

in choosing the airline.

6. Sampling process

Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA), as an

international air travel hub, has 255 flights scheduled to

depart on each weekday (source: Hong Kong Airport

Authority, Aug 2001). The total passenger throughput

in July 2001 was about 2.8 million (source: Hong Kong

Airport Authority). According to the Hong Kong

Tourist Association, the major visitor categories in

2000 were Mainland Chinese (36 per cent), Taiwanese

(22 per cent), Japanese (13 per cent) and American (9

per cent), and around 49 per cent were leisure travellers

while business visitors made up 30 per cent of the total.

These passenger profiles meet the fundamental requirement

of this research as air travellers from different

market segments can be found at HKIA, reducing the

possible sampling error as valid samples can be clearly

identified.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Table 1

Relative importance of SERVQUAL dimensions

Reliability 32

Responsiveness 22

Assurance 19

Empathy 16

Tangibles 11

Source: Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1989).

522 D. Gilbert, R.K.C. Wong / Tourism Management 24 (2003) 519–532

The study excluded arriving whereby it is argued that

memories of the tangible evidence right after the service

received might endure most strongly and could lead to

bias. Moreover, this research is aimed to measure the

‘expectations’ rather than ‘perceptions’ of airline service.

Therefore, departing passengers and even potential

passengers seeing their friends off at the airport form

more valid samples. Systematic sampling was adopted

with a ‘skip interval’ of every 10th individual arriving at

the entrance of HKIA. All three main entrances to the

departure terminal were stationed by two interviewers

(a total of 6 interviewers) in order to cope with flows of

respondents. 336 completions of the questionnaire was

calculated as the appropriate sample size. A pilot test of

the questionnaire found the response rate to be about 34

per cent therefore, it was planned to approach at least

1200 respondents to ensure the capture of sufficient

numbers of different ethnic travellers and to have a large

enough response. The questionnaire was self-completion

and prepared in three versions: English, Chinese and

Japanese. The questionnaire was completed in the

presence of the interviewer who encouraged the respondent

to also write further information in the comments

columns.

Fourteen questions from the SERVQUAL scale were

reworded to cater to the airline context; twelve additional

questions are derived from the passengers’ key purchase

criteria identified. The SERVQUAL dimension ‘tangibles’

is not specific enough and is therefore broken down

into three, namely, ‘facilities’, ‘employees’ and ‘flight

patterns’. The dimension ‘empathy’ is changed to

‘customization’ for better representation.

In order to evaluate the reliability and validity of the

questionnaire, a pilot test with 20 business travellers was

conducted as well as opinions being gathered from

expert marketers. A few questions were retested on the

respondents through a verification call-back. Eighty per

cent of the respondents selected the same scaledresponse

while the other 20 per cent selected the

scaled-response which are not too far from the original

ones (one scale up). In addition to verify the instrument

a split-half reliability test was conducted. The statements

in the questionnaire were split randomly into two

groups and compared based upon one group of items

to the other with a t-test used to analyse the data. As a

result, the difference in mean scores was calculated to be

insignificant. This indicated the questionnaire was

reliable in generating similar scale-responses from

respondents who reflect the final sample design.

7. Analysis of the findings

The survey was carried out in early September 2001

and the response rate was approximately 30 per cent.

The questionnaires completed were 218 males and 147

females by gender. Owing to the insufficient sample

collected from Filipino, Australian, Korean, Indian,

Thai and South African respondents, these responses

were not retained for the data analysis. The final ethnic

mix utilized represented: Chinese—122; North American—

86; Japanese—64; West European—56, making

up a total analysis of 328 respondents.

Regarding the respondents’ purpose of travel,

although some respondents chose more than one

purpose the interviewers immediately clarified this. The

reasons for travel fall into the following three categories:

Business, 135 respondents; Holiday 139 respondents;

Visiting friends/relatives 54 respondents. Airline decision

made by self was 188 respondents and by others 140

respondents.

7.1. Data analysis and hypothesis testing

A brief description of the 26 items in the questionnaire

and the importance of the statements tested

provides a better understanding of the analysis (see

Table 2). The following statistics, which indicate no

missing values, were generated by SPSS. It can be seen

the findings provide evidence of:

* 23 items out of 26 (88 per cent) scored 5 or above on

the 8-point scale, indicating respondents have above

average expectations of almost all dimensions.

* Q6 has the highest mean scores and the smallest

standard deviation, which indicates that safety is

respondents’ number one concern. Q1 ranks the

second, meaning that on-time departure and arrival is

also very important for respondents.

* Q21 (availability of air/accommodation packages)

has the largest standard deviation.

* Q11 (availability of in-flight internet/email/fax/phone

facilities); Q22 (availability of travel related partners)

and Q21 (availability of air/accommodation packages)

are of least importance for respondents and scored

4.22, 4.15 and 3.57, respectively.

Part 2 of the questionnaire asked respondents to

prioritize directly the dimensions ‘in order of importance’

for them directly, and the findings are given in

Table 3.

In both assessments (Parts 1 and 2 of the questionnaire),

‘Reliability’ was not ranked, as in the literature,

as the most important dimension (being ranked third

and second, respectively). Hence the hypothesis H4 is

rejected. Tsaur, Chang, and Yen (2002) in their research

into airline service quality utilizing a fuzzy set approach

found that of 15 service criteria the most important

attributes were related to courtesy, safety, comfort and

cleanliness. These reflect the findings of this study.

An independent sample t-test was carried out for

decision-makers in relation to non-decision-makers.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

D. Gilbert, R.K.C. Wong / Tourism Management 24 (2003) 519–532 523

Overall none of the individual items had a significance

level less than 5 per cent. This implies the difference

between the service expectations of decision-makers and

non-decision-makers is so small that hypothesis H2 is

rejected.

7.2. Significance test of differences among ethnic groups/

nationalities

Four major ethnic groups/nationalities are identified,

namely North American, West European, Chinese and

Japanese. ANOVA was used and 13 items indicated

highly significant differences (Sig. value smaller than

0.01) while one item (Q14) signaled significant difference.

The differences come from various service dimensions

except ‘Assurance’ (Q5, Q6, and Q7). The results

indicate that there is no difference in expectations of

‘Assurance’ across different ethnic groups/nationalities.

Since there are more than half of the items (14 items)

signaling statistically significant differences, the hypothesis

H1 is accepted which indicates airlines need to

consider variations in service requirements by ethnic

group.

In theory, ANOVA will indicate wherever there is at

least one pair of sample groups that has statistically

significant difference, but does not indicate where the

differences are. Based on the means of individual items,

some observations are described below:

* Japanese travellers have relatively higher expectations

of various service dimensions in general (Q2,

Q3, Q4, Q8, Q9, Q12, Q13, Q17, Q18, Q23, Q25 and

Q26), particularly in areas such as: consistent ground/

in-flight service (Q2); food/beverages quality (Q4);

clean/comfortable aircraft interiors and seats (Q8);

courteous and helpful employees who render prompt

service with personal individual attention (Q12, Q25,

Q23, Q17 and Q18).

* Both Chinese and Japanese fliers have higher

expectations (rated 6.20 and 6.08, respectively) of

in-flight entertainment facilities/programmes (Q9)

when compared to North American and West

European passengers.

* North Americans and West Europeans have higher

expectations (rated 6.20 and 5.96, respectively) of an

airline loyalty programme (Q19) than the Chinese

and Japanese.

7.3. Significance test of differences among passengers of

different travel purposes

Passengers usually travel for three main purposes:

business, holiday and visiting friends/relatives. ANOVA

results indicated 20 items with highly significant differences

(Sig. value smaller than 0.01). ‘Assurance’ (Q5, Q6,

and Q7) once again is not significant. This indicates that

there are similar expectations of ‘Assurance’ among

passengers travelling for different purposes.

On-time departure/arrival (Q1); clean and comfortable

aircraft interiors/seats (Q8) as well as neat and tidy

employee appearance (Q13) also are not significant.

However, since the majority of the items (20 items)

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Table 3

Descriptive statistics—relative importance of dimensions

N Meana Std. deviation

Assurance 328 1.1098 0.3411

Reliability 328 2.7165 0.9524

Responsiveness 328 2.8963 1.1500

Flight patterns 328 4.3659 1.1226

Employees 328 4.4299 1.0814

Facilities 328 6.0427 0.9945

Customization 328 6.4543 0.6892

aMean: 1=the most important; 7=the least important.

Table 2

Descriptive statistics—all questions

Mean Std.

deviation

Q6 (A) Safety 7.90 0.30

Q1 (R) On-time departure and arrival 7.84 0.37

Q5 (A) Behaviour of employees gives confidence 7.57 0.52

Q24 (RS) Efficient check-in/baggage handling

services

7.27 0.61

Q25 (RS) Employees are always willing to help 7.25 0.62

Q23 (RS) Prompt service by employees 7.12 0.62

Q12 (E) Courteous employees 6.97 0.71

Q26 (RS) Employees handle requests/complaints

promptly

6.96 0.72

Q15 (FP) Convenient flight schedules and

enough frequencies

6.93 0.65

Q8 (F) Clean and comfortable interior/seat 6.90 0.75

Q2 (R) Consistent ground/in-flight services 6.88 0.63

Q7 (A) Employees have knowledge to answer

questions

6.80 0.78

Q14 (FP) Non-stop flights to various destinations 6.70 0.66

Q3 (R) Perform service right the first time 6.60 0.72

Q13 (E) Neat and tidy employees 6.44 0.64

Q18 (C) Individual attention to passengers 6.33 1.02

Q17 (C) Understanding of passengers’ specific

needs

6.26 0.80

Q4 (R) Food and beverage 6.03 1.23

Q16 (FP) Availability of global alliance partners’

network

5.99 0.78

Q9 (F) In-flight entertainment facilities and

programmes

5.89 1.11

Q19 (C) Availability of loyalty programme 5.88 1.09

Q20 (C) Availability of frequent flyer programme 5.79 1.19

Q10 (F) Availability of waiting lounges 5.26 0.99

Q21 (C) Availability of air/accommodation

packages

4.22 1.53

Q22 (C) Availability of travel related partners,

e.g. hotels, car rentals

4.15 1.27

Q11 (F) In-flight internet/email/fax/phone

facilities

3.57 1.04

(n ¼ 328 respondents for all questions)

Key: R—reliability; A—assurance; F—facilities; E—employees; FP—

flight patterns; C—customization; RS—responsiveness.

524 D. Gilbert, R.K.C. Wong / Tourism Management 24 (2003) 519–532

tested signal statistically significant differences, hypothesis

H3 is hence accepted. As mentioned previously

ANOVA does not highlight where the differences are,

therefore, some observations related to these differences

are described below.

7.3.1. Business travellers

* They have the lowest expectations of quality service

in relation to food and beverages (Q4); individual

attention by airline employees (Q18); prompt service

(Q23) and in-flight entertainment facilities/programmes

(Q9), among the three categories identified.

This is an interesting finding as it is usually these

services that airlines concentrate on in relation to the

business traveller. Obviously current experiences

reflect that lower quality levels are influencing

expectation. This provides an ideal opportunity for

an airline brand to excel in these areas.

* They have relatively higher expectations of internet/

email/fax/phone (Q11) and travel related partners of

airlines (Q22). They have higher expectations of

waiting lounges (Q10); convenient schedules and

flight frequencies (Q15); loyalty and frequent flyer

programmes (Q19 and Q20) than others.

7.3.2. Holiday-makers

* Among the three categories, they have the highest

expectations of food/beverages quality (Q4); in-flight

entertainment facilities/programmes (Q9); individual

attention (Q18); helpful airline employees (Q25) who

deliver prompt service (Q23) and understand their

specific needs (Q17), as well as efficient in handling

requests and complaints (Q26). Given holiday-makers

normally fly on the cheapest fares then this finding can

create a dilemma to the airline wanting to reflect lower

price by having lower cost.

7.3.3. Passengers visiting friends/relatives

* They have generally the lowest expectations of the

various service dimensions among the three categories,

except in areas such as individual attention

(Q18); food/beverages quality (Q4); prompt service

(Q23) and for in-flight entertainment facilities/programmes,

their expectations are higher than those of

business travellers.

8. Conclusions

Understanding the relationship between airline service

quality and profitability is important. However,

it is perhaps more useful managerially to identify

specific drivers of airline service quality that most

relate to the passengers as appropriate intervention

strategies can then be formulated. Based on the

findings of the study it was found there are significant

differences in service expectations among passengers

of different ethnic groups/nationalities as well as passengers

with different purposes of travel. However, there

was no significant difference in service expectations

between decision-makers and non-decision-makers in

choosing airlines. Also, ‘Reliability’ was consistently

found to be lower in rank than expected from the

literature. The study allows a picture of passengers’

service expectations and some recommendations to be

summarized as follows:

* Safety is the number one priority for passengers. This

research occurred just prior to the ‘terrorist incident’

in New York, and it is predicted ‘Assurance’ will be

increasingly even more important for passengers and

should not be compromised in any way. More

measures in security and well-trained/vigilant employees

will give passengers more confidence.

* Consideration should be given to ensuring on-time

performance of flights, as it is another highly ranked

attribute.

* Being prompt/responsive, willing to help and having

a courteous attitude should be a priority objective for

the employees as part of the service culture.

* Resources invested in ‘Customization’ (such as

loyalty and frequent flyer programmes) and ‘Facilities’

(such as in-flight entertainment; waiting lounges

and in-flight internet/email/fax/phone services)

should be re-examined and targeted to the right

audience, as these are the areas that are not highly

regarded by all passengers in general.

8.1. Ethnic groups/nationalities

* More resources might need to be deployed across

various service dimensions on routes dominated by

Japanese passengers in order to meet their high

expectations.

* More Japanese and Chinese entertainment programmes/

movies and foreign films with subtitles are

desired on route with higher Japanese and Chinese

demographics (based on questionnaire written comments).

* More convenient schedules; frequencies of flight and

global airline partners can attract more business

travellers and holiday-makers.

* Availability of waiting lounges is one of the least

important services rendered from the passengers’

point of view. According to the written comments,

some passengers do not have time to visit the lounges

after checking-in and they also mentioned some

lounges are too far from boarding gates. The lounges

are more useful for transit passengers.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

D. Gilbert, R.K.C. Wong / Tourism Management 24 (2003) 519–532 525

* Passengers visiting friends/relatives have lower expectations

across the service dimensions. According

to the written comments, price is one of the main

determining factors in selecting an airline.

In conclusion this research has attempted to provide

some useful information, i.e. the differences in service

expectations among passengers of different market

segments. Future research may want to expand on this

study. This research involves only four ethnic groups/

nationalities; so researchers might be interested in

testing the differences in service expectations of other

ethnic groups/nationalities. Future research may also

study if the identified seven dimensions are fully

appropriate in measuring the desired provision of airline

service quality.

Appendix A. Questionnaire used for the study

Dear passenger,

We are conducting a survey regarding

your expectations of airline services: Please indicate the

level of importance of each statement for you. Your

comment is highly important to the analysis, and will be

treated with anonymity and confidentiality. Thank you

very much for your cooperation.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Part 1: Please circle the number that indicates the level of importance of each statement for you

Unimportant Very

important

No

opinion

1. The flight departs and arrives at a

time it promises.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

2. The airline provides good ground/in-flight

services consistently.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

3. The airline performs the service right the

first time.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

4. The airline provides quality food and

beverages.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

5. The behaviour of employees gives you

confidence.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

6. The airline makes you feel safe. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

7. Employees of the airline have the knowledge

to answer your questions.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

8. The aircraft has clean and comfortable

interiors and seats.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

9. The airline has up-to-date in-flight

entertainment facilities and programmes.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

10. The airline has comfortable waiting lounges. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

11. The airline provides in-flight

internet/email/fax/phone services.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

12. Employees of the airline are consistently

courteous with you.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

13. Employees of the airline appear neat and tidy. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

14. The airline has non-stop service to various

destinations.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

15. The airline has convenient flight schedules and

enough frequencies

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

16. The airline has global alliance partners in

order to provide a wider network and

smoother transfers.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

17. Employees of the airline understand your

specific needs.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

18. Employees of the airline give you individual

attention.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

526 D. Gilbert, R.K.C. Wong / Tourism Management 24 (2003) 519–532

ARTICLE IN PRESS

19. The airline has a sound loyalty programme to

recognize you as a frequent customer.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

20. The airline has a sound mileage programme. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

21. The airline offers you with air/accommodation

packages.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

22. The airline has other travel related partners,

e.g. car rentals, hotels and travel insurance.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

23. Employees of the airline give you prompt

service.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

24. The airline has efficient check-in and baggage

handling services

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

25. Employees of the airline are always willing to

help you.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

26. Employees of the airline are never too busy to

respond to your request or complaint.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

Part 2: Please prioritize the following 7 attributes in order of importance to you

(1=The most important; 7=The least important)

Assurance (safety records, employees’ capability)

Flight Patterns (flight schedules, flight frequencies, flight network)

Reliability (on-time departure/arrival, consistent service)

Responsiveness (efficient service, prompt handling of requests/complaints)

Employees (employees’ appearance and attitude)

Facilities (check-in / baggage handling service, in-flight facilities, waiting lounge)

Customization (individual attention, anticipation of your travel needs)

Are there any specific reasons why you prioritized the attributes in such order?

Part 3: Please tick the appropriate box below

27. You are: & Male1 & Female2

28. Your purpose of travel (or next possible trip if not travelling today):

& Business1 & Visiting friends/relatives3

& Tourist2 & Other (please write )

29. Who made/will make (if not travelling today) the airline decision for you:

& Yourself1 & Secretary2

& Travel agent2 & Family2

& Other (please write )

30. Which of these ethnic groups/nationalities do you belong to:

& American1 & French2

& Canadian1 & Chinese3

& British2 & Japanese4

&German2 & Other (please write )

D. Gilbert, R.K.C. Wong / Tourism Management 24 (2003) 519–532 527

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Any other comments?

-THANK YOUAppendix

B. ANOVA tables of findings

ANOVA—Ethnic groups/nationalities

Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig.

Q1 Between groups 0.257 3 8.576E-02 0.629 0.597

Within groups 44.179 324 0.136

Total 44.436 327

Q2 Between groups 12.680 3 4.227 11.563 0.000

Within groups 118.441 324 0.366

Total 131.122 327

Q3 Between groups 20.192 3 6.731 14.847 0.000

Within groups 146.878 324 0.453

Total 167.070 327

Q4 Between groups 55.625 3 18.542 13.684 0.000

Within groups 439.006 324 1.355

Total 494.631 327

Q5 Between groups 8.934E-02 3 2.978E-02 0.109 0.955

Within groups 88.298 324 0.273

Total 88.387 327

Q6 Between groups 0.154 3 5.132E-02 0.579 0.629

Within groups 28.724 324 8.865E-02

Total 28.878 327

Q7 Between groups 3.039 3 1.013 1.695 0.168

Within groups 193.680 324 0.598

Total 196.720 327

Q8 Between groups 16.274 3 5.425 10.475 0.000

Within groups 167.796 324 0.518

Total 184.070 327

Q9 Between groups 35.044 3 11.681 10.291 0.000

Within groups 367.782 324 1.135

Total 402.826 327

Q10 Between groups 1.974 3 0.658 0.665 0.574

Within groups 320.514 324 0.989

Total 322.488 327

Q11 Between groups 7.111 3 2.370 2.211 0.087

Within groups 347.413 324 1.072

Total 354.524 327

528 D. Gilbert, R.K.C. Wong / Tourism Management 24 (2003) 519–532

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Q12 Between groups 21.798 3 7.266 16.716 0.000

Within groups 140.833 324 0.435

Total 162.631 327

Q13 Between groups 8.167 3 2.722 6.966 0.000

Within groups 126.614 324 0.391

Total 134.780 327

Q14 Between groups 4.316 3 1.439 3.397 0.018

Within groups 137.197 324 0.423

Total 141.512 327

Q15 Between groups 1.083 3 0.361 0.865 0.459

Within groups 135.161 324 0.417

Total 136.244 327

Q16 Between groups 2.114 3 0.705 1.148 0.330

Within groups 198.858 324 0.614

Total 200.973 327

Q17 Between groups 58.929 3 19.643 42.990 0.000

Within groups 148.043 324 0.457

Total 206.973 327

Q18 Between groups 73.605 3 24.535 29.830 0.000

Within groups 266.489 324 0.822

Total 340.095 327

Q19 Between groups 15.395 3 5.132 4.497 0.004

Within groups 369.727 324 1.141

Total 385.122 327

Q20 Between groups 9.754 3 3.251 2.320 0.075

Within groups 454.148 324 1.402

Total 463.902 327

Q21 Between groups 8.089 3 2.696 1.155 0.327

Within groups 756.106 324 2.334

Total 764.195 327

Q22 Between groups 1.894 3 0.631 0.391 0.760

Within groups 523.082 324 1.614

Total 524.976 327

Q23 Between groups 9.777 3 3.259 9.116 0.000

Within groups 115.821 324 0.357

Total 125.598 327

Q24 Between groups 1.065 3 0.355 0.948 0.418

Within groups 121.325 324 0.374

Total 122.390 327

Q25 Between groups 10.287 3 3.429 9.643 0.000

Within groups 115.213 324 0.356

Total 125.500 327

D. Gilbert, R.K.C. Wong / Tourism Management 24 (2003) 519–532 529

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Q26 Between groups 16.013 3 5.338 11.342 0.000

Within groups 152.472 324 0.471

Total 168.485 327

ANOVA—Purpose of travel

Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig.

Q1 Between groups 0.508 2 0.254 1.878 0.155

Within groups 43.928 325 0.135

Total 44.436 327

Q2 Between groups 3.466 2 1.733 4.412 0.013

Within groups 127.656 325 0.393

Total 131.122 327

Q3 Between groups 14.295 2 7.148 15.206 0.000

Within groups 152.775 325 0.470

Total 167.070 327

Q4 Between groups 192.894 2 96.447 103.882 0.000

Within groups 301.738 325 0.928

Total 494.631 327

Q5 Between groups 1.415 2 0.707 2.643 0.073

Within groups 86.973 325 0.268

Total 88.387 327

Q6 Between groups 0.497 2 0.248 2.844 0.060

Within groups 28.381 325 8.733E-02

Total 28.878 327

Q7 Between groups 3.293 2 1.647 2.767 0.064

Within groups 193.426 325 0.595

Total 196.720 327

Q8 Between groups 0.985 2 0.493 0.875 0.418

Within groups 183.085 325 0.563

Total 184.070 327

Q9 Between groups 73.636 2 36.818 36.349 0.000

Within groups 329.190 325 1.013

Total 402.826 327

Q10 Between groups 57.520 2 28.760 35.276 0.000

Within groups 264.968 325 0.815

Total 322.488 327

Q11 Between groups 21.052 2 10.526 10.259 0.000

Within groups 333.472 325 1.026

Total 354.524 327

Q12 Between groups 11.190 2 5.595 12.007 0.000

Within groups 151.441 325 0.466

Total 162.631 327

530 D. Gilbert, R.K.C. Wong / Tourism Management 24 (2003) 519–532

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Q13 Between groups 0.803 2 0.401 0.974 0.379

Within groups 133.978 325 0.412

Total 134.780 327

Q14 Between groups 13.472 2 6.736 17.097 0.000

Within groups 128.041 325 0.394

Total 141.512 327

Q15 Between groups 19.183 2 9.592 26.630 0.000

Within groups 117.061 325 0.360

Total 136.244 327

Q16 Between groups 31.338 2 15.669 30.020 0.000

Within groups 169.635 325 0.522

Total 200.973 327

Q17 Between groups 17.377 2 8.689 14.894 0.000

Within groups 189.595 325 0.583

Total 206.973 327

Q18 Between groups 116.888 2 58.444 85.097 0.000

Within groups 223.207 325 0.687

Total 340.095 327

Q19 Between groups 166.894 2 83.447 124.275 0.000

Within groups 218.228 325 0.671

Total 385.122 327

Q20 Between groups 194.970 2 97.485 117.808 0.000

Within groups 268.933 325 0.827

Total 463.902 327

Q21 Between groups 283.967 2 141.984 96.089 0.000

Within groups 480.228 325 1.478

Total 764.195 327

Q22 Between groups 82.225 2 41.112 30.178 0.000

Within groups 442.751 325 1.362

Total 524.976 327

Q23 Between groups 13.707 2 6.854 19.907 0.000

Within groups 111.890 325 0.344

Total 125.598 327

Q24 Between groups 4.680 2 2.340 6.461 0.002

Within groups 117.710 325 0.362

Total 122.390 327

Q25 Between groups 9.018 2 4.509 12.581 0.000

Within groups 116.482 325 0.358

Total 125.500 327

Q26 Between groups 16.706 2 8.353 17.886 0.000

Within groups 151.779 325 0.467

Total 168.485 327

D. Gilbert, R.K.C. Wong / Tourism Management 24 (2003) 519–532 531

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+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه 8 تیر1388ساعت 2:2 قبل از ظهر  توسط نی نی  | 

1 Joseph A. Alutto

Office of Academic Affairs

The Ohio State University

203 Bricker Hall

190 North Oval Mall

Columbus, Ohio 43210-1357

Phone # 614-292-4211

Fax # 614-292-3658

alutto.1@osu.edu

EDUCATION

1962 BBA Manhattan College - Business Administration

1965 MA University of Illinois - Industrial Relations

1968 PhD Cornell University - Organizational Behavior

ACADEMIC EXPERIENCE

October 11, 2007 – Present Executive Vice President and Provost, The Ohio State University

Chief academic officer of The Ohio State University. As executive vice president and provost, is responsible for the administration, coordination, and development of all academic functions of the university. Ohio State’s 18 colleges and five regional campuses report to the provost, as do the following units of the university: ADA Coordinator Office, Office of the CIO, Economic Access Initiative, Faculty and TA Development, Graduate School, Human Resources, Institutional Research and Planning, International Affairs, John Glenn School of Public Affairs, Minority Affairs, Office of Research, ROTC, Undergraduate Education, University Libraries, University Senate, Wexner Center for the Arts, and the Women’s Place. Creating and supporting an environment that advances the university’s mission of achieving international distinction in education, scholarship, and public service requires that the executive vice president and provost interact with the offices of all vice presidential areas; participate in all Board of Trustees meetings; have strong working relationships with the University Senate and its committees and with student and staff governance organizations; and actively collaborate with such statewide and regional organizations as the Ohio Board of Regents and the Inter-University Council of Ohio, as well as with national associations that include the AACU, AAU, ACE; CIC, and NASULGC.

July 1, 2007 – October 10, 2007 Interim Executive Vice President and Provost, The Ohio State University

July 1, 2007 - September 30, 2007 Interim President, The Ohio State University 2

Chief executive officer for the five campuses of The Ohio State University, which has an annual budget of $3.7 billion and a student population of more than 59,000. A major public research university and the leading comprehensive teaching and research institution in the state, Ohio State has 18 colleges offering more than 170 majors in the liberal arts, sciences and professions. In 2007, it was ranked 19th among public universities in the U.S. News & World Report’s “America’s Best Colleges.”

2002 – 2007 Executive Dean of the Professional Colleges, The Ohio State University

The professional colleges cluster includes Fisher College of Business, College of Education and Human Ecology, College of Engineering, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, Moritz College of Law, and College of Social Work. As Executive Dean, was responsible for coordinating activities among cluster members and representing cluster interests in university-wide deliberations. The Executive Dean served on key planning and implementa-tion committees of the university (e.g., President’s Cabinet, Deans’ Steering Committee, President’s Council on Women’s Issues, University Budget Advisory Committee) providing guidance to the president and provost on university-wide matters.

1991-2007 Dean and John W. Berry, Sr. Chair in Business and Professor of Management,

Max M. Fisher College of Business, The Ohio State University

Chief administrative officer responsible for all academic and non-academic operations of the Fisher College involving 110 faculty, 120 staff members, 5,000 graduate and undergraduate students and an operating budget of over $55 million. Initiatives have focused on: reallocating instructional resources to focus on graduate (MBA and PhD) programs while also upgrading undergraduate programs (e.g., introduction of two new honors programs and business minor concentration); planning for and constructing a new six-buildings, $135 million campus for the college (ground breaking occurred June 1995 with completion in June 2002); creating a six- building living-learning center for MBA students; expanding executive education programs; redesigning internal governance structures to provide greater emphasis on faculty, staff and student participation in program planning and implementation activities; creating special centers of excellence (e.g., Service Leadership, International Business, Operational Excellence, Information Technology, Entrepreneurship); expanding international programs; raising over $165 million in private giving; increasing the college’s permanent endowment to over $130 million; significantly improving external rankings for MBA and undergraduate programs; and enhancing support for faculty research.

1976-1990 Dean, School of Management, State University of New York at Buffalo

Chief administrative officer responsible for all academic and non-academic operations of the school. Accomplishments included: Business Week ranking of school as one of 40 best in the 3

U.S.; establishment by Bilateral Protocol of first MBA program based in People's Republic of China; securing $4 million in funding from the United States and People's Republic of China to fund first ten years of China based MBA Program; creation of Regional Economic Assistance Center; establishment of Center for Management Development resulting in NUCEA Region II Awards for Outstanding Non-Credit Program Development (1985), Marketing Plan Innovations (1988) and NUCEA National Award for Innovative Certificate and Non-Traditional Degree Programs (1990); organizing facilities design, fund generation and movement of all faculty and staff to the new Jacobs Management Center; fourfold increase in external research funding; creation of five funded chairs and three alumni professorships; reaccreditation of all programs and initial accreditation of accounting programs by AACSB; development of new programs in management information systems, international management (with special emphases on Mexico, Eastern Europe, Indonesia, Japan and China), financial institutions and markets, and health care management; establishment of a career development and placement office in the school as well as an alumni and corporate development office; creation of six regional, national and international external executive advisory boards for academic programs; creation of International Executive Program; development of joint programs with faculties of engineering and social sciences; generation of support for dean's summer fellowship program for faculty; securing support for multiple student fellowship programs; implementation of the first on-campus individualized budgeting system for all faculty and staff; chairing multiple university-wide committees.

1966-1991 Clarence S. Marsh Professor, Professor, Associate Professor, Assistant Professor

State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Management

Department of Organization and Human Resources

Activities included: lecturing widely in executive development programs for senior and middle- level managers focusing on structural characteristics of organizations, matrix forms of design, performance and productivity, leadership, quality control and improvement processes, and conflict management; research focusing on comparative analyses of professional employment systems, studies of patterns of participation in organizational decision making, analysis of structural design and performance; teaching courses in organizational theory and analysis, research methods, organizational design strategies, leadership and the comparative analysis of professional occupations; acted as dissertation chairman for 12 completed PhDs; committee activities included PhD, MBA, Curriculum and Inter-University Advisory Committee to the Survey Research Center; Executive Committee of the Graduate School; Faculty Review Committee and Committee on Promotion and Evaluation Standards; served as a "reviewer-referee" for Management Science, Social Forces, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Administrative Science Quarterly; member, Editorial Review Board, Academy of Management Review, 1981-84; 1972-74 served as Chairman, PhD Program, responsible for program design, policy development and program administration; 1975-76 Associate Dean, responsible for all internal resource allocation and internal university relationships.

1974-75 Visiting Professor of Behavioral Science, Graduate School of Industrial Administration, Carnegie Mellon University. 4

1971-72 Visiting Associate Professor of Industrial Sociology, Department of Sociology, Brock University.

1968-72 Off-Campus Faculty Member, Cornell University, New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations.

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS

Books and Monographs

Dansereau, F., J. Alutto, and F. Yammarino. Theory Testing in Organizational Behavior: The Varient Approach. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1984.

Dansereau, F., J. Alutto and F. Yammarino. Instructors Manual: Theory Testing in Organizational Behavior: The Varient Approach. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1984.

Articles and Book Chapters

Alutto, J. “Culture, Levels of Analysis, and Cultural Transition” in F. Dansereau and F. Yammarino. The Many Faces of Multi-Level Issues- Research in Multi-Level Issues, Vol I., Elsevier Science Ltd., 2002.

Alutto, J. “Just-in-Time Management Education in the 21st Century.” HR Magazine, 21st

Century HR, Vol. 44, No. 11, January 2000.

Dansereau, F., F. Yammarino, S. Markham, J. Alutto, J. Newman, M. Dumas, S. Nachman, T. Naughton, K. Kim, S. Al-Kelabi, S. Lee, and T. Keller. “Individualized Leadership: A New Multiple-Level Approach” in Dansereau, F. and Yammarino, F. (Eds) Leadership: The Multiple-Level Approaches. JAI Press, 1998.

Dansereau, F., F. Yammarino, S. Markham, J. Alutto, J. Newman, M. Dumas, S. Nachman, T. Naughton, K. Kim, S. Al-Kelabi, S. Lee, and T. Keller. “Extensions to the Individualized Leadership Approach: Placing the Approach in Context” in Dansereau, F. and Yammarino, F. (Eds) Leadership: The Multiple-Level Approaches. JAI Press, 1998.

Dansereau, F., F. Yammarino, S. Markham, J. Alutto, J. Newman, M. Dumas, S. Nachman,

T. Naughton, K. Kim, S. Al-Kelabi, S. Lee, and T. Keller. "Individualized Leadership: A New Multiple-Level Approach." Leadership Quarterly, 1995.

Alutto, J. "Whither Doctoral Business Education?: An Exploration of Program Models." Selections, Graduate Management Admissions Council, Spring 1993.

Alutto, J. "Issues Affecting Management Education." Selections, Graduate Management Admissions Council, Fall 1991. 5

Dansereau, F. and J. Alutto "Levels of Analysis Issues In Climate and Culture Research" in

B. Schneider (Ed.) Climate and Culture in Organizations. Beverly Hills, California: Jossey Bass, 1990.

Alutto, J. and D. Coleman. "Cross-Cultural Examination of Chinese Managers" in C. Carl Pegels, Management and Industry in China. NYC: Praeger, 1987.

Parasuraman, S. and J. Alutto. "Sources and Outcomes of Stress in Organizational Settings: Toward the Development of a Structural Model." Academy of Management Journal, 1984.

Markham, S., F. Dansereau, J. Alutto and M. Dumas. "Leadership Convergence: An Application of Within and Between Analysis to Validity." Applied Psychological Measurement, 1983.

Markham, S., F. Dansereau and J. Alutto. "Absenteeism Rates as Measures in Organizational Experiments: Hidden Cyclical and Structural Variations." Review of Business and Economic Research, 1983.

Markham, S., F. Dansereau, J. Alutto. "On the Use of Shift as an Independent Variable in Absenteeism Research." Journal of Occupational Psychology, 1982.

Markham, S., F. Dansereau, J. Alutto. "Group Size and Absenteeism Rates: A Longitudinal Analysis." Academy of Management Journal, 1982.

Markham, S., F. Dansereau and J. Alutto. "Female Versus Male Absence Rates: A Temporal Analysis." Personnel Psychology, 1982.

Parasuraman, S. and J. Alutto. "An Examination of the Organizational Antecedents of Stressors at Work." Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 24, No. 1, March 1981.

Dansereau, F., J. Alutto, S. Markham and M. Dumas. "Multiplexed Supervision and Leadership: An Application of Within and Between Analysis" in Hunt, J., U. Sckaran, and C. Schrieshiem (eds.), Leadership: Beyond Establishment Views. Carbondale, IL: SIU Press, 1981.

Dansereau, F., J. Alutto, S. Markham and M. Dumas. "A Multiplexed Response to Professors Bass and Morely” in Hunt, J., C. Schrieshiem and U. Qekaran, Leadership: Beyond Establishment Views. Carbondale, IL: SIU Press, 1981.

Dansereau, F., J. Alutto and S. Markham. "An Initial Investigation into the Suitability of Absenteeism Rates as Measures of Performance." Proceedings of the 1977 Academy of Management, Orlando, Florida; reprinted in Bryant, D. and Niehaus, R. Manpower and Organizational Design. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.

Alutto, J. Review of R. Miles, "Theories of Management." Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Vol. 32, July 1978. 6

Vredenburgh, D. and J. Alutto. "Perceived Structure in Relation to Industrial Attitudes and Performance." Organization and Administrative Sciences, Vol. 8, Summer-Fall 1977.

Alutto, J. and D. Vredenburgh. "Characteristics of Decisional Participation by Nurses." Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1977.

Alutto, J. and F. Acito. "Decisional Participation and Sources of Satisfaction; A Study of Manufacturing Personnel." Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1974.

Alutto, J. and J. Belasco. "Attitudinal Militancy Among Professional Employees." Industrial and Labor Relations Review, January 1974.

Hrebiniak, L. and J. Alutto. "A Comparative Organizational Study of Performance and Size Correlates in In-Patient Psychiatric Departments." Administrative Science Quarterly, September 1973.

Alutto, J. and J. Belasco. "Patterns of Teacher Participation in School System Decision-Making." Educational Administration Quarterly, Winter 1972; translated and reprinted in

J. Goldstein (ed.), Studies in Educational Administration and Organization, Center for Educational Administration, University of Haifa, 1973.

Alutto, J., L. Hrebiniak and R. Alonso. "On Operationalizing the Concept of Commitment." Social Forces, June 1973.

Hrebiniak, L. and J. Alutto. "Personal and Role-Related Factors in the Development of Organizational Commitment." Administrative Science Quarterly, December 1972.

Belasco, J. and J. Alutto. "Line-Staff Conflicts: Some Empirical Insights." Journal of the Academy of Management, November 1969; reprinted in Turner, Filley and House (eds.), Readings in Managerial Process and Organizational Behavior, Scott-Foresman, 1972.

Alutto, J., R. Alonso and L. Hrebiniak. "Job Tension Among Hospital Employed Nurses." Supervisor Nurse, March 1972.

Belasco, J., J. Alutto and A. Glassman. "A Study of School Community Conflict," in J. Belasco, and M. Milstein (eds.), A Systems Approach to School Administration, Allyn and Bacon, 1972.

Alutto, J. and J. Belasco. "A Typology for Participation in Organizational Decision-Making." Administrative Science Quarterly, March 1972.

Alutto, J. A book review of Tiffany, et al, "The Unemployed: A Social-Psychological Portrait." Industrial and Labor Relations Review, January 1972.

Alutto, J. "Professionals and Collective Bargaining: The Case of the American Nurses Association" in M. Arnold, L. Blankenship and J. Hess (eds.), Administering Health Systems, Atherton-Aldine, 1971. 7

Belasco, J. and J. Alutto. "Teacher Satisfaction and Decisional Participation." Educational Administration Quarterly, November 1971.

Belasco, J., J. Alutto and A. Glassman. "A Study of Conflicts in Community and Teacher Perceptions of Decisional Control in School Systems." Education and Urban Society, November 1971.

Alutto, J., L. Hrebiniak and R. Alonso. "Variations in Employing Institution and Influence Perceptions Among Nursing Personnel.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, June 1971; reprinted in Supervisor Nurse, September 1971.

Alutto, J., L. Hrebiniak and R. Alonso. "A Study of Differential Socialization Practices for Members of the Professional Occupation." Journal of Health and Social Behavior, September 1971.

Alutto, J. and L. Hrebiniak. "Analysis of a Student Stereotype: The Effective Corporate Executive." Public Opinion Quarterly, Winter 1970.

Alutto, J. "Dynamics of Questionnaire Completion and Return Among Professional and Managerial Personnel." Journal of Applied Psychology, October 1970.

Alutto, J. "A Note on Determining Questionnaire Destination in Survey Research." Social Forces, December 1969.

Belasco, J., J. Alutto and F. Greene. "A Case Study of Strike Behavior in an Urban School System." Education and Urban Society, November 1969.

Belasco, J. and J. Alutto. "Organizational Impacts of Teacher Negotiations." Industrial Relations, October 1969.

Trice, H., J. Belasco and J. Alutto. "The Role of Ceremonials in Organizations." Industrial and Labor Relations Review, October 1969.

Alutto, J. "Men, Motivation and Productivity.” Administrative Management Society, Professional Bulletin, August 1969.

Alutto, J. "Organizations and the Variable Identification." Cornell Journal of Social Relations, Fall 1967.

Alutto, J. "Collective Bargaining, Nursing Attitudes and the Local Unit Concept." New York State Nurse, August 1967.

Alutto, J. "Identification: State and Process Considerations." Cornell Journal of Social Relations, Spring 1967. 8

SAMPLE PRESENTATIONS

Numerous presentations (ten to twenty per year) to corporate and civic groups on trends in management education and the design of corporations in an age of rapid change and international competition. Examples of presentation topics include:

“Strategies for Change: Building the Fisher College of Business” to multiple corporate organizations.

“Leadership Perspectives for Complex Environments” to multiple corporate organizations.

“Observations About Competitive Talent Acquisition” (Business First Fast Fifty Luncheon, Columbus, OH).

“Dean’s Advisory Councils-Some Key Issues” (AACSB Mid-Continent Deans, Chicago, IL, and Ohio Business Deans, Ashland, OH).

“Making Your Business Advisory Council a Strategic Asset of Your Institution” (AACSB Deans Conference, Orlando, FL).

“Status of the Industry and Importance of Communications” (AACSB International Public and Media Relations and Business School Development Conference, Atlanta, GA).

“What is Leadership?” (The Ohio State University Winter College, Sarasota, FL).

“Shaping Leaders for a Service-Based Economy” (Metropolitan Club, New York, NY).

“Working with Development” (The Ohio State University New Academic Leader Orientation, Columbus, OH).

“Social Responsibility, Corporate Citizenship and Integrity” (Olentangy Business Hall of Fame Breakfast, Delaware, OH).

“A Platform for Progress: Designing and Developing A New Campus” (AACSB Annual Meeting, New York, NY).

“Building Partnerships, Building Community, Building Success in Ohio” (The Commercial Developers Power Breakfast, Columbus, OH).

“Globalizing the University” (The Ohio State University Alumni Association Annual Meeting, Columbus, OH).

“Human Resources Policies for the 21st Century” (CIC Human Resources Officers Annual Conference, Columbus, OH).

“The Future of Business Education” (AACSB Presidential Address, Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL). 9

“The Future of Undergraduate Business Education” (AACSB Conference on Business Education, Pennsylvania State University).

"Corporate Training Needs in China and the Role for U.S. Universities" (China Human Resources Committee of the National Foreign Trade Council, New York, NY).

"Lessons to be Learned from Sino-US Joint Venture Activities" (The National Convention of Japan Productivity Center, Kobe, Japan, and Kansai Economic Federation, Osaka, Japan).

"Sino-US Joint Ventures: Lessons for Economics in Transition" (Society for Chinese Economics and Management, New Orleans).

"Issues Affecting Management Schools" (Keynote address at the Annual Meeting of the Graduate Management Council, Vancouver).

"Strategies for Change" (American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business, Annual Seminar for Business School Deans).

"Internationalizing Business Schools" (American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business, Annual Seminar).

"University Strategies for Involvement in State and Regional Economic Development" (Annual Meeting of the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business).

"An Initial Examination of Changes in Managerial Job Perceptions as a Result of Economic Reform in the People's Republic of China" (Academy of Management Meetings, Chicago, IL).

CONSULTING AND OTHER ACTIVITIES

Served as consultant to banks, manufacturing firms, aerospace companies, health care agencies, school districts and university systems. Included on arbitrator lists of American Arbitration Association and Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service. Arbitration activities have included cases in transportation, electronics, steel, food distribution, equipment manufacturing industries, state and federal agencies, educational institutions, and police departments. Visiting expert on Organizational Design and Human Resource Management, National Center for Science and Technology Management Development, People's Republic of China, 1981 - 1991 (Program co-sponsored by United States Department of Commerce and People's Republic of China). Appointed as advisor to the first session of the Dalian Behavioral Sciences Association and first International Dean for the Dalian University School of Business. Served as Visiting Professor at the College of Management, Zheijang University and has lectured widely throughout China.

Member, Board of Directors, Columbus-Franklin County Finance Port Authority (2006-present)

Member, Board of Directors, M/I Homes (2005-present)

Member, Board of Directors, Nationwide Financial Services, Inc. (2002-present)

Member, Board of Trustees, Experience Columbus (2001-present)

Member, Board of Directors, United Retail Group, Inc. (1992-2007) 10

Member, Board of Directors, Columbus Regional Airport Authority (2002-2005)

Member, Board of Directors, Barrister Global Services Network, Inc. (2000-2003)

Member, Board of Directors, Inroads, Inc. (1994-2004)

Member, Board of Advisors, Bank One, N.A. (1994-2000)

Member, Board of Directors, Comptek Research, Inc. (1987-2000)

Member, Board of Directors, American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business-The International Association for Management Education (1994-1999), President-elect (1995-6), President (1996-1998 only the second two-term President in history of AACSB)

Member, Board of Directors, Ohio State Life Insurance Company (1995-1997)

Campaign Chairman, The Ohio State University, United Way of Franklin County (1992)

Member, U.S. Department of Commerce Advisory Board on Management Training in the People’s Republic of China (1985-1991)

Member, Board of Directors, Rand Capital Corp. (1986-1991)

Chairman, Board of Directors, Health Care Plan, Inc. (1987-1991)

Member, Long Range Planning Committee on the United Way of Buffalo and Erie County; Chair, International Operations Task Force; Chair, Strategic Planning Committee (1981-1987)

Campaign Chairman, United Way of Buffalo and Erie County ($15.8 million Campaign) 1988

Member, Board of Directors, United Way of Buffalo and Erie County (1984-1991)

Member, Accreditation Visitation Committee, Long-Range Planning Committee, Key Relationships Task Force, International Business Affairs Committee, International Peer Review Marketing Task Force, Strategic Planning Oversight Committee, Board Liaison representative to regional meetings, American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business

Member, School Board, Amherst Central School District (1981-1987); President (1982-1987)

Member, Board of Governors, Academy of Management (1984-1986)

Member, Board of Directors, Greater Buffalo Chamber of Commerce (1980-1986)

SPECIAL HONORS

Numerous special local recognitions for service to community (e.g., Chamber of Commerce, Rotary, etc.). In addition:

December 2006 – Beijing, China, honored as one of the “Prominent Figures Contributing to China’s MBA Education” by the Ministry of Education and CCTV.

October 2004 - Named Honorary International Dean, School of Management, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.

January 2000 - Selected as one of the Small Business News Columbus 100 Leaders for the New Millennium.

September 1999 - Awarded John W. Berry, Sr. Chair in Business, The Ohio State University, Fisher College of Business.

June 1999 - Distinguished Alumni Award for Leadership in Industrial and Labor Relations, University of Illinois, Institute of Industrial and Labor Relations. 11

May 1997 - Inducted into The Ohio State University Chapter of The Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi.

May 1996 - Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters, Manhattan College.

September 1990 - Awarded Clarence S. Marsh Chair in Management, State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Management.

June 1990 - Joseph A. Alutto Doctoral Fellowship in Management, endowment created by the State University of New York at Buffalo School of Management Alumni Association in honor of contributions to doctoral education in management.

May 1990 - Recipient of Walter P. Cooke Award for Notable and Meritorious Service to the State University of New York at Buffalo, SUNY at Buffalo Alumni Association.

January 1989 - National Award for "Outstanding Contributions to the Economic Modernization of China" by the State Economic Commission, State Commission on Science and Technology and State Education Commission of the People’s Republic of China.

October 1983 - National Columbus Day Honoree for Contributions to Management Education.

ASSOCIATION MEMBERSHIPS

American Sociological Association

American Psychological Association

Academy of Management - Secretary, Eastern Academy, 1973-74;

Board of Governors, 1975-78 and 1980-84; Proceedings Editor, 1978

and 1979; Vice-President Program, 1978; Vice President Elect, 1979;

President, 1980; Chair, 1993 Annual Meeting (Seattle).

American Association for the Advancement of Science

Labor and Employment Relations Association

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه 8 تیر1388ساعت 1:56 قبل از ظهر  توسط نی نی  | 

1 Joseph A. Alutto

Office of Academic Affairs

The Ohio State University

203 Bricker Hall

190 North Oval Mall

Columbus, Ohio 43210-1357

Phone # 614-292-4211

Fax # 614-292-3658

alutto.1@osu.edu

EDUCATION

1962 BBA Manhattan College - Business Administration

1965 MA University of Illinois - Industrial Relations

1968 PhD Cornell University - Organizational Behavior

ACADEMIC EXPERIENCE

October 11, 2007 – Present Executive Vice President and Provost, The Ohio State University

Chief academic officer of The Ohio State University. As executive vice president and provost, is responsible for the administration, coordination, and development of all academic functions of the university. Ohio State’s 18 colleges and five regional campuses report to the provost, as do the following units of the university: ADA Coordinator Office, Office of the CIO, Economic Access Initiative, Faculty and TA Development, Graduate School, Human Resources, Institutional Research and Planning, International Affairs, John Glenn School of Public Affairs, Minority Affairs, Office of Research, ROTC, Undergraduate Education, University Libraries, University Senate, Wexner Center for the Arts, and the Women’s Place. Creating and supporting an environment that advances the university’s mission of achieving international distinction in education, scholarship, and public service requires that the executive vice president and provost interact with the offices of all vice presidential areas; participate in all Board of Trustees meetings; have strong working relationships with the University Senate and its committees and with student and staff governance organizations; and actively collaborate with such statewide and regional organizations as the Ohio Board of Regents and the Inter-University Council of Ohio, as well as with national associations that include the AACU, AAU, ACE; CIC, and NASULGC.

July 1, 2007 – October 10, 2007 Interim Executive Vice President and Provost, The Ohio State University

July 1, 2007 - September 30, 2007 Interim President, The Ohio State University 2

Chief executive officer for the five campuses of The Ohio State University, which has an annual budget of $3.7 billion and a student population of more than 59,000. A major public research university and the leading comprehensive teaching and research institution in the state, Ohio State has 18 colleges offering more than 170 majors in the liberal arts, sciences and professions. In 2007, it was ranked 19th among public universities in the U.S. News & World Report’s “America’s Best Colleges.”

2002 – 2007 Executive Dean of the Professional Colleges, The Ohio State University

The professional colleges cluster includes Fisher College of Business, College of Education and Human Ecology, College of Engineering, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, Moritz College of Law, and College of Social Work. As Executive Dean, was responsible for coordinating activities among cluster members and representing cluster interests in university-wide deliberations. The Executive Dean served on key planning and implementa-tion committees of the university (e.g., President’s Cabinet, Deans’ Steering Committee, President’s Council on Women’s Issues, University Budget Advisory Committee) providing guidance to the president and provost on university-wide matters.

1991-2007 Dean and John W. Berry, Sr. Chair in Business and Professor of Management,

Max M. Fisher College of Business, The Ohio State University

Chief administrative officer responsible for all academic and non-academic operations of the Fisher College involving 110 faculty, 120 staff members, 5,000 graduate and undergraduate students and an operating budget of over $55 million. Initiatives have focused on: reallocating instructional resources to focus on graduate (MBA and PhD) programs while also upgrading undergraduate programs (e.g., introduction of two new honors programs and business minor concentration); planning for and constructing a new six-buildings, $135 million campus for the college (ground breaking occurred June 1995 with completion in June 2002); creating a six- building living-learning center for MBA students; expanding executive education programs; redesigning internal governance structures to provide greater emphasis on faculty, staff and student participation in program planning and implementation activities; creating special centers of excellence (e.g., Service Leadership, International Business, Operational Excellence, Information Technology, Entrepreneurship); expanding international programs; raising over $165 million in private giving; increasing the college’s permanent endowment to over $130 million; significantly improving external rankings for MBA and undergraduate programs; and enhancing support for faculty research.

1976-1990 Dean, School of Management, State University of New York at Buffalo

Chief administrative officer responsible for all academic and non-academic operations of the school. Accomplishments included: Business Week ranking of school as one of 40 best in the 3

U.S.; establishment by Bilateral Protocol of first MBA program based in People's Republic of China; securing $4 million in funding from the United States and People's Republic of China to fund first ten years of China based MBA Program; creation of Regional Economic Assistance Center; establishment of Center for Management Development resulting in NUCEA Region II Awards for Outstanding Non-Credit Program Development (1985), Marketing Plan Innovations (1988) and NUCEA National Award for Innovative Certificate and Non-Traditional Degree Programs (1990); organizing facilities design, fund generation and movement of all faculty and staff to the new Jacobs Management Center; fourfold increase in external research funding; creation of five funded chairs and three alumni professorships; reaccreditation of all programs and initial accreditation of accounting programs by AACSB; development of new programs in management information systems, international management (with special emphases on Mexico, Eastern Europe, Indonesia, Japan and China), financial institutions and markets, and health care management; establishment of a career development and placement office in the school as well as an alumni and corporate development office; creation of six regional, national and international external executive advisory boards for academic programs; creation of International Executive Program; development of joint programs with faculties of engineering and social sciences; generation of support for dean's summer fellowship program for faculty; securing support for multiple student fellowship programs; implementation of the first on-campus individualized budgeting system for all faculty and staff; chairing multiple university-wide committees.

1966-1991 Clarence S. Marsh Professor, Professor, Associate Professor, Assistant Professor

State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Management

Department of Organization and Human Resources

Activities included: lecturing widely in executive development programs for senior and middle- level managers focusing on structural characteristics of organizations, matrix forms of design, performance and productivity, leadership, quality control and improvement processes, and conflict management; research focusing on comparative analyses of professional employment systems, studies of patterns of participation in organizational decision making, analysis of structural design and performance; teaching courses in organizational theory and analysis, research methods, organizational design strategies, leadership and the comparative analysis of professional occupations; acted as dissertation chairman for 12 completed PhDs; committee activities included PhD, MBA, Curriculum and Inter-University Advisory Committee to the Survey Research Center; Executive Committee of the Graduate School; Faculty Review Committee and Committee on Promotion and Evaluation Standards; served as a "reviewer-referee" for Management Science, Social Forces, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Administrative Science Quarterly; member, Editorial Review Board, Academy of Management Review, 1981-84; 1972-74 served as Chairman, PhD Program, responsible for program design, policy development and program administration; 1975-76 Associate Dean, responsible for all internal resource allocation and internal university relationships.

1974-75 Visiting Professor of Behavioral Science, Graduate School of Industrial Administration, Carnegie Mellon University. 4

1971-72 Visiting Associate Professor of Industrial Sociology, Department of Sociology, Brock University.

1968-72 Off-Campus Faculty Member, Cornell University, New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations.

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS

Books and Monographs

Dansereau, F., J. Alutto, and F. Yammarino. Theory Testing in Organizational Behavior: The Varient Approach. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1984.

Dansereau, F., J. Alutto and F. Yammarino. Instructors Manual: Theory Testing in Organizational Behavior: The Varient Approach. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1984.

Articles and Book Chapters

Alutto, J. “Culture, Levels of Analysis, and Cultural Transition” in F. Dansereau and F. Yammarino. The Many Faces of Multi-Level Issues- Research in Multi-Level Issues, Vol I., Elsevier Science Ltd., 2002.

Alutto, J. “Just-in-Time Management Education in the 21st Century.” HR Magazine, 21st

Century HR, Vol. 44, No. 11, January 2000.

Dansereau, F., F. Yammarino, S. Markham, J. Alutto, J. Newman, M. Dumas, S. Nachman, T. Naughton, K. Kim, S. Al-Kelabi, S. Lee, and T. Keller. “Individualized Leadership: A New Multiple-Level Approach” in Dansereau, F. and Yammarino, F. (Eds) Leadership: The Multiple-Level Approaches. JAI Press, 1998.

Dansereau, F., F. Yammarino, S. Markham, J. Alutto, J. Newman, M. Dumas, S. Nachman, T. Naughton, K. Kim, S. Al-Kelabi, S. Lee, and T. Keller. “Extensions to the Individualized Leadership Approach: Placing the Approach in Context” in Dansereau, F. and Yammarino, F. (Eds) Leadership: The Multiple-Level Approaches. JAI Press, 1998.

Dansereau, F., F. Yammarino, S. Markham, J. Alutto, J. Newman, M. Dumas, S. Nachman,

T. Naughton, K. Kim, S. Al-Kelabi, S. Lee, and T. Keller. "Individualized Leadership: A New Multiple-Level Approach." Leadership Quarterly, 1995.

Alutto, J. "Whither Doctoral Business Education?: An Exploration of Program Models." Selections, Graduate Management Admissions Council, Spring 1993.

Alutto, J. "Issues Affecting Management Education." Selections, Graduate Management Admissions Council, Fall 1991. 5

Dansereau, F. and J. Alutto "Levels of Analysis Issues In Climate and Culture Research" in

B. Schneider (Ed.) Climate and Culture in Organizations. Beverly Hills, California: Jossey Bass, 1990.

Alutto, J. and D. Coleman. "Cross-Cultural Examination of Chinese Managers" in C. Carl Pegels, Management and Industry in China. NYC: Praeger, 1987.

Parasuraman, S. and J. Alutto. "Sources and Outcomes of Stress in Organizational Settings: Toward the Development of a Structural Model." Academy of Management Journal, 1984.

Markham, S., F. Dansereau, J. Alutto and M. Dumas. "Leadership Convergence: An Application of Within and Between Analysis to Validity." Applied Psychological Measurement, 1983.

Markham, S., F. Dansereau and J. Alutto. "Absenteeism Rates as Measures in Organizational Experiments: Hidden Cyclical and Structural Variations." Review of Business and Economic Research, 1983.

Markham, S., F. Dansereau, J. Alutto. "On the Use of Shift as an Independent Variable in Absenteeism Research." Journal of Occupational Psychology, 1982.

Markham, S., F. Dansereau, J. Alutto. "Group Size and Absenteeism Rates: A Longitudinal Analysis." Academy of Management Journal, 1982.

Markham, S., F. Dansereau and J. Alutto. "Female Versus Male Absence Rates: A Temporal Analysis." Personnel Psychology, 1982.

Parasuraman, S. and J. Alutto. "An Examination of the Organizational Antecedents of Stressors at Work." Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 24, No. 1, March 1981.

Dansereau, F., J. Alutto, S. Markham and M. Dumas. "Multiplexed Supervision and Leadership: An Application of Within and Between Analysis" in Hunt, J., U. Sckaran, and C. Schrieshiem (eds.), Leadership: Beyond Establishment Views. Carbondale, IL: SIU Press, 1981.

Dansereau, F., J. Alutto, S. Markham and M. Dumas. "A Multiplexed Response to Professors Bass and Morely” in Hunt, J., C. Schrieshiem and U. Qekaran, Leadership: Beyond Establishment Views. Carbondale, IL: SIU Press, 1981.

Dansereau, F., J. Alutto and S. Markham. "An Initial Investigation into the Suitability of Absenteeism Rates as Measures of Performance." Proceedings of the 1977 Academy of Management, Orlando, Florida; reprinted in Bryant, D. and Niehaus, R. Manpower and Organizational Design. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.

Alutto, J. Review of R. Miles, "Theories of Management." Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Vol. 32, July 1978. 6

Vredenburgh, D. and J. Alutto. "Perceived Structure in Relation to Industrial Attitudes and Performance." Organization and Administrative Sciences, Vol. 8, Summer-Fall 1977.

Alutto, J. and D. Vredenburgh. "Characteristics of Decisional Participation by Nurses." Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1977.

Alutto, J. and F. Acito. "Decisional Participation and Sources of Satisfaction; A Study of Manufacturing Personnel." Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1974.

Alutto, J. and J. Belasco. "Attitudinal Militancy Among Professional Employees." Industrial and Labor Relations Review, January 1974.

Hrebiniak, L. and J. Alutto. "A Comparative Organizational Study of Performance and Size Correlates in In-Patient Psychiatric Departments." Administrative Science Quarterly, September 1973.

Alutto, J. and J. Belasco. "Patterns of Teacher Participation in School System Decision-Making." Educational Administration Quarterly, Winter 1972; translated and reprinted in

J. Goldstein (ed.), Studies in Educational Administration and Organization, Center for Educational Administration, University of Haifa, 1973.

Alutto, J., L. Hrebiniak and R. Alonso. "On Operationalizing the Concept of Commitment." Social Forces, June 1973.

Hrebiniak, L. and J. Alutto. "Personal and Role-Related Factors in the Development of Organizational Commitment." Administrative Science Quarterly, December 1972.

Belasco, J. and J. Alutto. "Line-Staff Conflicts: Some Empirical Insights." Journal of the Academy of Management, November 1969; reprinted in Turner, Filley and House (eds.), Readings in Managerial Process and Organizational Behavior, Scott-Foresman, 1972.

Alutto, J., R. Alonso and L. Hrebiniak. "Job Tension Among Hospital Employed Nurses." Supervisor Nurse, March 1972.

Belasco, J., J. Alutto and A. Glassman. "A Study of School Community Conflict," in J. Belasco, and M. Milstein (eds.), A Systems Approach to School Administration, Allyn and Bacon, 1972.

Alutto, J. and J. Belasco. "A Typology for Participation in Organizational Decision-Making." Administrative Science Quarterly, March 1972.

Alutto, J. A book review of Tiffany, et al, "The Unemployed: A Social-Psychological Portrait." Industrial and Labor Relations Review, January 1972.

Alutto, J. "Professionals and Collective Bargaining: The Case of the American Nurses Association" in M. Arnold, L. Blankenship and J. Hess (eds.), Administering Health Systems, Atherton-Aldine, 1971. 7

Belasco, J. and J. Alutto. "Teacher Satisfaction and Decisional Participation." Educational Administration Quarterly, November 1971.

Belasco, J., J. Alutto and A. Glassman. "A Study of Conflicts in Community and Teacher Perceptions of Decisional Control in School Systems." Education and Urban Society, November 1971.

Alutto, J., L. Hrebiniak and R. Alonso. "Variations in Employing Institution and Influence Perceptions Among Nursing Personnel.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, June 1971; reprinted in Supervisor Nurse, September 1971.

Alutto, J., L. Hrebiniak and R. Alonso. "A Study of Differential Socialization Practices for Members of the Professional Occupation." Journal of Health and Social Behavior, September 1971.

Alutto, J. and L. Hrebiniak. "Analysis of a Student Stereotype: The Effective Corporate Executive." Public Opinion Quarterly, Winter 1970.

Alutto, J. "Dynamics of Questionnaire Completion and Return Among Professional and Managerial Personnel." Journal of Applied Psychology, October 1970.

Alutto, J. "A Note on Determining Questionnaire Destination in Survey Research." Social Forces, December 1969.

Belasco, J., J. Alutto and F. Greene. "A Case Study of Strike Behavior in an Urban School System." Education and Urban Society, November 1969.

Belasco, J. and J. Alutto. "Organizational Impacts of Teacher Negotiations." Industrial Relations, October 1969.

Trice, H., J. Belasco and J. Alutto. "The Role of Ceremonials in Organizations." Industrial and Labor Relations Review, October 1969.

Alutto, J. "Men, Motivation and Productivity.” Administrative Management Society, Professional Bulletin, August 1969.

Alutto, J. "Organizations and the Variable Identification." Cornell Journal of Social Relations, Fall 1967.

Alutto, J. "Collective Bargaining, Nursing Attitudes and the Local Unit Concept." New York State Nurse, August 1967.

Alutto, J. "Identification: State and Process Considerations." Cornell Journal of Social Relations, Spring 1967. 8

SAMPLE PRESENTATIONS

Numerous presentations (ten to twenty per year) to corporate and civic groups on trends in management education and the design of corporations in an age of rapid change and international competition. Examples of presentation topics include:

“Strategies for Change: Building the Fisher College of Business” to multiple corporate organizations.

“Leadership Perspectives for Complex Environments” to multiple corporate organizations.

“Observations About Competitive Talent Acquisition” (Business First Fast Fifty Luncheon, Columbus, OH).

“Dean’s Advisory Councils-Some Key Issues” (AACSB Mid-Continent Deans, Chicago, IL, and Ohio Business Deans, Ashland, OH).

“Making Your Business Advisory Council a Strategic Asset of Your Institution” (AACSB Deans Conference, Orlando, FL).

“Status of the Industry and Importance of Communications” (AACSB International Public and Media Relations and Business School Development Conference, Atlanta, GA).

“What is Leadership?” (The Ohio State University Winter College, Sarasota, FL).

“Shaping Leaders for a Service-Based Economy” (Metropolitan Club, New York, NY).

“Working with Development” (The Ohio State University New Academic Leader Orientation, Columbus, OH).

“Social Responsibility, Corporate Citizenship and Integrity” (Olentangy Business Hall of Fame Breakfast, Delaware, OH).

“A Platform for Progress: Designing and Developing A New Campus” (AACSB Annual Meeting, New York, NY).

“Building Partnerships, Building Community, Building Success in Ohio” (The Commercial Developers Power Breakfast, Columbus, OH).

“Globalizing the University” (The Ohio State University Alumni Association Annual Meeting, Columbus, OH).

“Human Resources Policies for the 21st Century” (CIC Human Resources Officers Annual Conference, Columbus, OH).

“The Future of Business Education” (AACSB Presidential Address, Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL). 9

“The Future of Undergraduate Business Education” (AACSB Conference on Business Education, Pennsylvania State University).

"Corporate Training Needs in China and the Role for U.S. Universities" (China Human Resources Committee of the National Foreign Trade Council, New York, NY).

"Lessons to be Learned from Sino-US Joint Venture Activities" (The National Convention of Japan Productivity Center, Kobe, Japan, and Kansai Economic Federation, Osaka, Japan).

"Sino-US Joint Ventures: Lessons for Economics in Transition" (Society for Chinese Economics and Management, New Orleans).

"Issues Affecting Management Schools" (Keynote address at the Annual Meeting of the Graduate Management Council, Vancouver).

"Strategies for Change" (American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business, Annual Seminar for Business School Deans).

"Internationalizing Business Schools" (American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business, Annual Seminar).

"University Strategies for Involvement in State and Regional Economic Development" (Annual Meeting of the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business).

"An Initial Examination of Changes in Managerial Job Perceptions as a Result of Economic Reform in the People's Republic of China" (Academy of Management Meetings, Chicago, IL).

CONSULTING AND OTHER ACTIVITIES

Served as consultant to banks, manufacturing firms, aerospace companies, health care agencies, school districts and university systems. Included on arbitrator lists of American Arbitration Association and Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service. Arbitration activities have included cases in transportation, electronics, steel, food distribution, equipment manufacturing industries, state and federal agencies, educational institutions, and police departments. Visiting expert on Organizational Design and Human Resource Management, National Center for Science and Technology Management Development, People's Republic of China, 1981 - 1991 (Program co-sponsored by United States Department of Commerce and People's Republic of China). Appointed as advisor to the first session of the Dalian Behavioral Sciences Association and first International Dean for the Dalian University School of Business. Served as Visiting Professor at the College of Management, Zheijang University and has lectured widely throughout China.

Member, Board of Directors, Columbus-Franklin County Finance Port Authority (2006-present)

Member, Board of Directors, M/I Homes (2005-present)

Member, Board of Directors, Nationwide Financial Services, Inc. (2002-present)

Member, Board of Trustees, Experience Columbus (2001-present)

Member, Board of Directors, United Retail Group, Inc. (1992-2007) 10

Member, Board of Directors, Columbus Regional Airport Authority (2002-2005)

Member, Board of Directors, Barrister Global Services Network, Inc. (2000-2003)

Member, Board of Directors, Inroads, Inc. (1994-2004)

Member, Board of Advisors, Bank One, N.A. (1994-2000)

Member, Board of Directors, Comptek Research, Inc. (1987-2000)

Member, Board of Directors, American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business-The International Association for Management Education (1994-1999), President-elect (1995-6), President (1996-1998 only the second two-term President in history of AACSB)

Member, Board of Directors, Ohio State Life Insurance Company (1995-1997)

Campaign Chairman, The Ohio State University, United Way of Franklin County (1992)

Member, U.S. Department of Commerce Advisory Board on Management Training in the People’s Republic of China (1985-1991)

Member, Board of Directors, Rand Capital Corp. (1986-1991)

Chairman, Board of Directors, Health Care Plan, Inc. (1987-1991)

Member, Long Range Planning Committee on the United Way of Buffalo and Erie County; Chair, International Operations Task Force; Chair, Strategic Planning Committee (1981-1987)

Campaign Chairman, United Way of Buffalo and Erie County ($15.8 million Campaign) 1988

Member, Board of Directors, United Way of Buffalo and Erie County (1984-1991)

Member, Accreditation Visitation Committee, Long-Range Planning Committee, Key Relationships Task Force, International Business Affairs Committee, International Peer Review Marketing Task Force, Strategic Planning Oversight Committee, Board Liaison representative to regional meetings, American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business

Member, School Board, Amherst Central School District (1981-1987); President (1982-1987)

Member, Board of Governors, Academy of Management (1984-1986)

Member, Board of Directors, Greater Buffalo Chamber of Commerce (1980-1986)

SPECIAL HONORS

Numerous special local recognitions for service to community (e.g., Chamber of Commerce, Rotary, etc.). In addition:

December 2006 – Beijing, China, honored as one of the “Prominent Figures Contributing to China’s MBA Education” by the Ministry of Education and CCTV.

October 2004 - Named Honorary International Dean, School of Management, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.

January 2000 - Selected as one of the Small Business News Columbus 100 Leaders for the New Millennium.

September 1999 - Awarded John W. Berry, Sr. Chair in Business, The Ohio State University, Fisher College of Business.

June 1999 - Distinguished Alumni Award for Leadership in Industrial and Labor Relations, University of Illinois, Institute of Industrial and Labor Relations. 11

May 1997 - Inducted into The Ohio State University Chapter of The Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi.

May 1996 - Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters, Manhattan College.

September 1990 - Awarded Clarence S. Marsh Chair in Management, State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Management.

June 1990 - Joseph A. Alutto Doctoral Fellowship in Management, endowment created by the State University of New York at Buffalo School of Management Alumni Association in honor of contributions to doctoral education in management.

May 1990 - Recipient of Walter P. Cooke Award for Notable and Meritorious Service to the State University of New York at Buffalo, SUNY at Buffalo Alumni Association.

January 1989 - National Award for "Outstanding Contributions to the Economic Modernization of China" by the State Economic Commission, State Commission on Science and Technology and State Education Commission of the People’s Republic of China.

October 1983 - National Columbus Day Honoree for Contributions to Management Education.

ASSOCIATION MEMBERSHIPS

American Sociological Association

American Psychological Association

Academy of Management - Secretary, Eastern Academy, 1973-74;

Board of Governors, 1975-78 and 1980-84; Proceedings Editor, 1978

and 1979; Vice-President Program, 1978; Vice President Elect, 1979;

President, 1980; Chair, 1993 Annual Meeting (Seattle).

American Association for the Advancement of Science

Labor and Employment Relations Association

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه 8 تیر1388ساعت 1:54 قبل از ظهر  توسط نی نی  | 

758

EVALUATION OF PRODUCTS AND SERVICES OF A NURSING LIBRARY:

USER SATISFACTION1

Sheila Kátia Cozin2

Ruth Natalia Teresa Turrini3

Cozin SK, Turrini RNT. Evaluation of products and services of a nursing library: user satisfaction. Rev Latino-am

Enfermagem 2008 julho-agosto; 16(4):758-64.

The goal of the study was to evaluate the quality of the services provided by the library at the Nursing School

of the University of São Paulo. A questionnaire evaluating users’ satisfaction with the service was employed,

covering five quality components: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. The Satisfaction

Rate was calculated through the degree of importance in relation to satisfaction. The analysis of the openended

answers was quanti-qualitative. For Reliability and Empathy, the users showed dissatisfaction with the

training for bibliographic research and the librarian’s willingness to meet the clients’ information needs,

respectively. Responsiveness did not fully satisfy the users, disagreeing with the providers. However, both

agreed that the archives are outdated. Among the tangible aspects, equipment and noise were criticized most

often. The results show that the library offers good service quality to its users.

DESCRIPTORS: libraries, nursing; library materials; consumer satisfaction; nursing

EVALUACIÓN DE LOS PRODUCTOS Y SERVICIOS EN UNA BIBLIOTECA DE ENFERMERÍA:

SATISFACCIÓN DEL USUARIO

El estudio tuvo por objetivo evaluar la calidad de la atención en la biblioteca de la Escuela de Enfermería de la

Universidad de São Paulo. Se utilizó un cuestionario que evalúa la satisfacción del usuario a través de cinco

componentes de calidad: tangible, confiable, receptivo, seguridad y empatía. La Tasa de Satisfacción se calculó

mediante la razón entre el grado de importancia y satisfacción. El análisis de las preguntas abiertas fue cuanticualitativo.

En Confiabilidad y Empatía, los usuarios se mostraron insatisfechos con los entrenamientos para

búsqueda bibliográfica y sobre el empeño del empleado para atender las necesidades de los clientes. Los

usuarios no estuvieron plenamente satisfechos con la receptividad, sin embargo ambos concordaron que la

bibliografía estaba desactualizada. Dentro de los aspectos tangibles, los equipos y el ruido fueron los más

criticados. Los resultados demostraron que la biblioteca ofrece servicio de calidad a sus usuarios.

DESCRIPTORES: bibliotecas de enfermería; materiales bibliográficos; satisfacción de los consumidores;

enfermería

AVALIAÇÃO DOS PRODUTOS E SERVIÇOS DE UMA BIBLIOTECA DE ENFERMAGEM:

SATISFAÇÃO DO USUÁRIO

O estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a qualidade do atendimento da biblioteca da Escola de Enfermagem da

Universidade de São Paulo. Utilizou-se questionário que avalia a satisfação do usuário com o serviço através

de cinco componentes da qualidade: tangibilidade, confiabilidade, receptividade, segurança e empatia. A taxa

de satisfação foi calculada pela razão entre grau de importância e de satisfação. A análise das perguntas

abertas foi quanti-qualitativa. Em confiabilidade e empatia, os usuários mostraram-se insatisfeitos quanto aos

treinamentos de busca bibliográfica e ao empenho do funcionário da biblioteca em atender as necessidades de

informação dos clientes, respectivamente. A receptividade não satisfez os usuários plenamente, discordando

dos prestadores, porém, ambos concordam que o acervo está desatualizado. Equipamentos e ruídos foram,

dentre os aspectos tangíveis, os mais criticados. Os resultados evidenciaram que a biblioteca oferece serviço

de qualidade aos seus usuários.

DESCRITORES: bibliotecas de enfermagem; acervo de biblioteca; satisfação dos consumidores; enfermagem

1 Article taken from scientific initiation study, funded by the São Paulo State Research Support Foundation, FAPESP, Brazil, nº 04/06549-5. Honorable Mention

at 13th SIICUSP; 2 Master´s student, e-mail: sheilakatia@hotmail.com; 3 Ph.D. in Public Health, Faculty, e-mail: rturrini@usp.br. University São Paulo School

of Nursing, Brazil.

Disponible en castellano/Disponível em língua portuguesa

SciELO Brasil www.scielo.br/rlae

Artigo Original

Rev Latino-am Enfermagem 2008 julho-agosto; 16(4):758-64

www.eerp.usp.br/rlae

759

INTRODUCTION

The increasing search for high-quality

service pushes companies to improve their work

methods in order to valuate their products in order to

grant them a better image in the market. Information

services, including libraries, are examples of a market

with a high rotation of users and data, which need to

renew regularly in order to be up-to-date with

technological advances, and also to satisfy their clients.

Since “service is an act or performance that

benefits clients through a desired change in – or on

behalf of – the service receiver”(1), the focus of the

renewal of libraries are the users, represented by

their opinion about the service provided, from the

availability of information in the various databases to

the performance of the professional providing services

there. At university libraries, concerns about quality

are even higher, because the users need the information

for their educational, research and extension

processes. The constant evaluation of the service is

indispensable to adapt and update the products and

services at the speed demanded by the clients.

For an effective response to the demands and

specificities of the community libraries’ management

and work practices should be reorganized(2), with the

indispensable creation and application of quality

indicators according to the profile of the users and

their expectations about the service and products

offered(3).

The clients’ expectations are the true

standards to evaluate the quality of the service(4). The

results obtained by two researchers(4) showed that

the clients evaluated the quality of the service by

comparing what they expect with what they receive.

The clients’ expectations of the services can be

differentiated in two levels: a desired level, reflecting

the service the client expects to receive (the relation

of what can be with what should be), and an adequate

level, which points to what the client considers

acceptable. When there is a small or inexistent

discrepancy between these levels, service

performance is satisfactory.

In the past years, the Integrated Library

System of the University of São Paulo (SIBi/USP) has

striven for quality through constant technological

renewal. In 2001, the first strategic planning for the

implementation of a new management model for the

SIBi/USP was presented, the Quality Assessment

Program (PAQ), whose objective was to develop a

continuous methodology to evaluate the quality of

products and services offered to SIBi/USP clients(5).

Therefore, people responsible for the PAQ created

an instrument based on a model used for the

evaluation of service quality, the SERVQUAL(6).

SERVQUAL is a scale that measures the

consumers’ perception about the quality of services

in five Gaps (Figure 1), which show the criteria

considered by the consumers in their final judgment

about the quality of services, making it easier for

service managers to understand the problems that

may possibly hinder the full satisfaction of the clients.

The analysis of the consumers’ answers allowed the

researchers(7) to identify dimensions of satisfaction:

Responsiveness (willingness to help the clients and

provide service quickly); Assurance (the knowledge

and courtesy of the employees, and their ability to

convey trust and responsibility); Tangibles

(appearance of the physical facilities and personnel);

Reliability (ability to perform the service accurately,

according to what was promised) and Empathy

(individual attention given to clients).

Gap 2 Gap between the

provision of service

and the external

communications

with the clients.

Gap between the

service specifications

and provision of

service

Gap between the

perceptions of

management and the

service specifications

Gap between the

expected service and

received service

Gap between the

consumer’s

expectations and

management’s

expectations

Word of mouth

Communications

Service

specifications

External

communication

to consumers

Personal

needs

Past

experiences

Management

Perceptions of

consumer

expectations

Service

Delivery

Expected

service

Perceived

service

Gap 3

Gap 5

Client

Service provider

Gap 4

Gap 1

Source: Parasuraman A, Zeithaml V, Berry LL. A conceptual model of service quality and its

implications for future research. J Marketing. 1985;49:41-50. (Reprinted with the authorization of

Journal of Marketing, published by the American Marketing Association)

Figure 1 – A model proposed to represent the gaps in

the client-company relationship

The use of this scale in the evaluation of

library services first happened in a study(8) that

generated the paper Service Quality in Academic

Libraries, and provided suggestions for the evaluation

of library services, especially in the academic

community.

The evaluation of the services provided by

the library permits a review of service goals, how it

works and the management model, pushing the

evolution process of self-criticism and promoting, with

its results, the solution of the problems identified in

the institution through the testimonies of all those

involved in the evaluation process.

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760

MATERIAL AND METHOD

This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study.

The project was approved by the Ethics Committee

at the University of São Paulo School of Nursing (EE/

USP) and the Research Commission of the EE/USP.

The study population consisted of internal

users (faculty, graduate and undergraduate students,

specialization students and assorted EE/USP

employees) and external users (faculty, graduate

students, specialization students, students from other

schools, healthcare professionals, among others) of

the Wanda de Aguiar Horta library at EE/USP. A

proportional random sample was extracted from the

faculty, undergraduate students and stricto sensu

graduate students of the EE/USP, in order to guarantee

that the smallest category would include at least 30

subjects. Therefore, the final sample was composed

of 31 faculty, 82 graduate students and 127

undergraduate students. The amount of 30 individuals

was intentionally set for the following categories:

specialization students, EE/USP employees and

external users. Ten library employees present at the

time of data collection also received the

questionnaires. Collection started in December, 2004

and ended in May, 2005.

Two hundred thirty-two questionnaires were

answered, 129 from undergraduate students, 26 from

faculty, 31 from graduate students (stricto sensu), 12

from specialization students, 19 from EEUSP

employees and 15 from external users, which

represented 70.3% of the initially determined sample,

excluding the library employees.

The questionnaire used for data collection

was elaborated from a pre-existent questionnaire used

by SIBi/USP in its PAQ. This instrument consisted of

Likert-style questions covering the five dimensions

of quality: tangibles (physical presentation of the

environment (T1), equipment (T2), communication

material (T3)), reliability (employees that inspire trust

(C1), security and reliability of the information

provided (C2), security and reliability in training for

information access (C3), reliable orientation about the

selection of information sources (C4), reliable

information on the library website (C5)),

responsiveness (providing services within the

promised time frame (R1), quickness in the lending

service (R2), flexibility in the lending process among

the USP libraries (R3), quickness in the reprographic

service (R4), provision of copies of documents from

other libraries (commuting) within an acceptable time

frame (R5), quickness/agility in the acquisition of

books, journals and other publications (R6), updated

archives (R7), efficiency in the safekeeping of material

and organization of the archives (R8), provision of

online services (R9), adequate working hours (R10)),

assurance (employees that were qualified to answer

questions (A1), accessible and polite employees (A2),

employees that know how to use the electronic

information sources (A3), skillful use of equipment

(A4)) and empathy (attentive service (E1), efforts to

see to the information needs (E2), individual attention

(E3), ease of communication with the employee (E4),

employee’s attitude (E5)), evaluated according to the

Degree of Importance and the Degree of Satisfaction.

Since the instrument was also applied to the

library employees (providers), the results obtained

from Gap f, named as such by the authors of this

project, could be associated to represent the service

providers’ perception about their own performance,

understanding that the Degree of Importance these

employees attributed to the service would represent

what they consider important as the service standards

and that the Degree of Satisfaction would represent

their performance as providers.

Open-ended questions were included in the

questionnaire to validate the respondents’ opinion in

relation to five pre-conceived dimensions of quality

and the need to apprehend specific information about

the library.

Satisfaction of the client and the service

provider was calculated as indicated by the authors

responsible for the scale(4):

Relative satisfaction rate (TSR) = (Value

attributed to satisfaction ¸ Value attributed to

importance) × 100.

The difference of the TSR obtained for the user

up to full satisfaction (100% - TSR) corresponds to Gap

5, and the difference of the TSR obtained for the service

provider up to full satisfaction (100%) corresponds to

Gap f. Both gaps can be positive values (the service does

not fully satisfy the expectations), equal to 100% (the

service satisfies the expectations) or negative (satisfaction

with the service is higher than expected).

For the TSR analysis, the use of medians was

chosen, so that the central measurement would not

be strongly influenced by extreme values, and

because the satisfaction of some users was higher

than their expectations, which could offset the

satisfaction average. Intergroup comparison was

done with the variance analysis test, and a significance

level of 5% was adopted. For the analysis of the openended

questions, the central theme was identified with

a later recoding of the answers to allow for a

quantitative-qualitative analysis.

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Undergraduate students were the users most

often present at the library, since they are at school

every day, and because they need to develop study,

evaluation, seminar and other activities demanded

by the Nursing course. The opposite situation occurred

with external users, since these seek the service for

Category

Daily Weekly Bi-weekly Monthly Rarely Never used Total

n % n % n % n % n % n % n %

Undergraduate 1styear 7 20.6 19 55.9 4 11.8 1 2.9 3 8.8 - - 34 14.6

Undergraduate 2ndyear 6 21.4 17 60.7 3 10.7 2 7.1 - - - - 28 12.1

Undergraduate 3rdyear 7 20.6 18 52.9 4 11.8 2 5.9 3 8.8 - - 34 14.6

Undergraduate 4thyear 2 6.1 20 60.6 6 18.2 5 15.2 - - - - 33 14.2

Professor - - 8 30.8 7 26.9 7 26.9 4 15.4 - - 26 11.2

Graduate 2 6.5 12 38.7 5 16.1 7 22.6 4 12.9 1 3.2 31 13.4

Specialization - - 5 41.7 - - 4 33.3 2 16.7 1 8.3 12 5.2

EEUSP employee 3 15.8 - - 2 10.5 - - 7 36.8 7 36.8 19 8.2

External user 2 13.3 2 13.3 - - 2 13.3 9 60.0 - - 15 6.5

Total 29 12.5 101 43.5 31 13.4 30 12.9 32 13.8 9 3.9 232 100

specific research. Weekly utilization was the frequency

modality most respondents mentioned most often.

The use of the library by graduate students

was inexpressive. The research activities performed

by this group demand a higher frequency of library

use. However, this result could be attributed to the

availability and ease to access electronically-stored

information.

0

0,05

0,1

0,15

0,2

0,25

0,3

R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

Gap 5

Gap f

Table 1 – Distribution of the respondents, in categories, according to the frequency of use of the Wanda de

Aguiar Horta library (EEUSP), São Paulo, 2005

Among the dimensions of quality,

Responsiveness (Figure 2) showed the highest

difference of full satisfaction with the service: Eight

out of ten indicators of this dimension presented a

Gap 5 of 25%. Although this result does not represent

a significant difference between what is perceived and

what is expected from the service, it stands out

because responsiveness is highlighted as the second

most important dimension for service quality(9).

Figure 2 – Distribution of the values for Gap 5 and f

according to the responsiveness indicator (R). Wanda

de Aguiar Horta Library (EEUSP), São Paulo, 2005

The archives deserve priority to fully meet

the user’s expectations, since the indicator up-to-date

archives (R7) presented a 25% Gap, for both users

and employees, besides obtaining a high frequency

of open-ended answers, indicating the existence of

outdated topics in the archives. In the indicator

Provision of online services (R9), the 25% Gap notes

the need to offer more services to the users, such as

requests for copies of articles.

The difference observed in indicators R7, R9

and Efficiency in the safekeeping of material and

organization of the archives (R8), as evaluated by

the providers, shows that they acknowledge the

importance of storing the material, indispensable to

find a given text or book, and this service deserves

more attention. A misplaced text or book may be

considered lost, and this activity reflects the

organization of the service directly.

In the dimension Assurance, only the

indicators Employees who were qualified to answer

questions (A1), and Employees who know how to use

the electronic information sources (A3) generated a

Gap 5 of 25% among the users, both related to the

technical capacity of the providers. In order to have

the users evaluate the quality of the archive, someone

needs to introduce them to the resources available

for bibliographic research and how they can obtain

the material they need. The users were fully satisfied

with the indicator Accessible and polite employees

(A2), different from the employees, where a Gap f of

12.5% was identified. The employees attribute a

degree of importance to this dimension that is not

fully reproduced in communication with the users.

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For Tangibles, the users and the providers

consensually determined that the indicator Equipments

(T2) has a Gap of 25% to full satisfaction. Even though

Parasuraman considers this dimension the least

important for the quality of service(9), as a result of

technological advances, computers have become

indispensable for good information services in

libraries. According to the providers, the indicator

communication material (T3), a valuable resource to

advertise the services provided, also obtained a Gap

f of 25%.

Although users are satisfied with indicator

T3, the results of the open-ended questions show

that the providers know the importance of the

communication material better than the users. For

the open-ended question about the interest of some

sort of training in capacitating courses for the user,

89.4% of the respondents mentioned training

programs related to bibliographic research, a

course that is currently offered by the library. This

is an evident failure in the advertisement of the

courses.

The same was observed in the answers

about interest in some sort of service the library

does not offer yet, where 41.1% of affirmative

answers mentioned the desire for courses

habitually offered by the library. For the same

question, 11.8% explicitly suggest that the library

should advertise its services.

The individual life history of the providers and

the encouragement they receive during their working

hours are factors that can influence the clients’

evaluation of a service, since the behavior and the

attitudes of the employee can interfere negatively in

professional activity, especially when the work is

articulated by interaction and communication with the

clients. Besides professional motivation, this could

explain the result obtained for the indicator Efforts to

see to the necessities of information (E2) of the

dimension Empathy, in which the users showed a Gap

5 of 25%. For the indicator employee’s attitude (E5),

a Gap f value of 25% shows that the providers can

improve their interpersonal relationship, although

users do not perceive this gap in the providers’

performance.

In a study where SERVQUAL was used, it was

observed that the key dimension for client perception

about an evaluated service is Reliability, since this is

the client’s guarantee that the requested services will

be done correctly and precisely(10). In this dimension,

the only indicator that did not obtain full satisfaction

among the users was Security and reliability in the

training for information access (C3).

The providers still need to improve their

training strategies, so that they can convey more trust

to the users. Because of the Gaps f of the providers,

it was observed that the reliable information on the

library’s website (C5) needs to be improved and

depends on frequent evaluation of the library’s

webpage by the providers themselves, so that updates

can be executed.

When the TSR averages among the

categories of respondents are compared by the ANOVA

test, statistically significant differences are observed

in the dimension Responsiveness for the indicators

R2 (p=0.040), R3 (p=0.005), R6 (p=0.031), R7

(p=0.006) and R10 (p=0.011); in the dimension

Assurance, only for A3 (p=0.047); in the dimension

Tangibles, for T1 (p=0.014); and in the dimension

Empathy, for E1 (p=0.013), E2 (p=0.004) and E5

(p=0.040).

For the category indication of books for

acquisition, it was noticed that, except for the

professors, the library users do not indicate books

for acquisition, probably because this possibility is not

advertised. Besides requesting the purchase of the

books that comprise the list of references for the

courses, the faculties are regularly asked to indicate

books when the library receives grants to enlarge its

archives.

In the question about outdated topics in the

archives, a little more than half of the respondents

mentioned at least one outdated topic, highlighting

themes from the Nursing area itself. This result is

controversial for a specialized library, but possible

because of the budgetary difficulties of the public

school. Technological advances in healthcare demand

frequent acquisitions of books and, due to their high

costs, students resort to book loans more and more

frequently.

Suggestions about the library facilities and

what they would change in the library mainly pointed

to aspects related to the environment, library facilities

and equipment. In the “environment and facilities”

category, they appointed actions for the reduction of

Rev Latino-am Enfermagem 2008 julho-agosto; 16(4):758-64

www.eerp.usp.br/rlae

Evaluation of products and services…

Cozin SK, Turrini RNT.

763

noise, enlargement of the physical space and

improvements in the comfort of the spaces destined

to studying. In “equipment”, the amount and condition

of the computers for research was emphasized,

supporting the difference in the indicator T2 of the

dimension Tangibles (Gap 5 of 25%) by at least half

of the users.

Regarding what the respondent users most

like or most dislike in the library, opinions diverged.

Environment and facilities”, “archives” and “service

were most often mentioned positively, while

archives”, “noise” and “service” were most often

mentioned as reasons for dissatisfaction. When

referring to the dimension Empathy, the indicators of

service presented Gap equal or lower than 25%,

indicating that, in the open-ended questions, the

respondents express their opinions better. Another

controversy resides in the fact that “environment and

facilities” have received a higher quantitative

amount of suggestions for change. Users tend to

overly valuate the physical aspects of the

environment, even though comfort is essential for

intellectual activities.

The better educated the clients are, the less

sensitive they are to the tangible dimensions(4). The

tangible dimension does not convince the user, but

factors like cleanliness, good ventilation and lighting,

when present and adequate, aid in the decision of

choice or purchase.

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

These data accomplished the goal of

evaluating user satisfaction regarding the services and

products of the “Wanda de Aguiar Horta” library, by

understanding its clients’ direct perception of the

services/products provided, as well as the impression

they have of the providers. The results showed that,

despite the gaps observed in some indicators, the

library offers good service quality to its users, since

88% of the respondents evaluated the service as good

or excellent. The gaps f of the providers were

important to identify gaps that may be improved

through initiatives taken by the service providers

themselves, and also those that need to be discussed

at higher decision-making levels.

The identification of undergraduate students

as the main library users shows that their needs should

be considered when purchasing books. On the other

hand, the less frequent library use by graduate

students deserves further investigation. Since this

group needs to perform systematic literature reviews

to develop projects, it is important to know whether

the non-use of the library happens because the

archives and the services provided are insufficient; if

the electronic searches and virtual libraries are

meeting the student’s library needs, or if the graduate

students are not dedicating themselves to studying

as required by graduate programs. In any case, since

many graduate students did not answer the

instrument, the amount of data is insufficient for

further considerations.

Institutional communication (advertising,

promotion and announcement of services), even in

public services, also affects the client’s expectations

directly, as seen in the analysis of the answers

obtained with the open-ended questions, where several

respondents cite the need to advertise the services

and products offered by the library. On the other hand,

others refer to the negative influence inefficient

advertising can exert on client satisfaction. Therefore,

investing in institutional communication can be an

efficient strategy to improve the quality of the library

evaluated.

The analysis of the gaps 5 showed that the

following aspects deserve more attention from the

library with a view to meeting users’ needs: updating

the archives, the communication system and the

equipment, advertising the services and training

programs, behavior of users and providers in

maintaining of silence within the library environment,

and accessibility for the providers.

The open-ended questions were important to

validate some indicators of the Likert scale. They

revealed that users also wanted extended work hours

of the library and more efficiency in reprographic

services.

After evaluating the results obtained by this

research, the Wanda de Aguiar Horta library was

considered to provide services with good quality,

satisfying most of its users and the service providers

themselves, presenting only a few punctual problems

that will serve as parameters to improve its services

even more.

Rev Latino-am Enfermagem 2008 julho-agosto; 16(4):758-64

www.eerp.usp.br/rlae

Evaluation of products and services…

Cozin SK, Turrini RNT.

764

REFERENCES

1. Lovelock CH, Wright L. Serviços: marketing e gestão. São

Paulo: Saraiva; 2001.

2. Vergueiro WCS, Carvalho T. Indicadores de qualidade em

bibliotecas universitárias brasileiras. In: Anais do 19°

Congresso Brasileiro de Biblioteconomia e Documentação;

2000 set. 24-30; Porto Alegre [CD-ROM]. Porto Alegre:

Associação Rio Grandense de Bibliotecários; 2000.

3. Broady-Preston J, Preston H. Demonstrating quality in

academic libraries. New Library World. 1999;100(3):124-9.

4. Berry LL, Parasuraman A. Serviços de Marketing:

competindo através da qualidade. São Paulo: Maltese-Norma;

1992.

5. Sampaio MIC, Caminada Netto A, Barreiros AA, Prado

AMMC, Fontes CA, Cordeiro ECA, et al. PAQ: implantação

Recebido em: 14.4.2007

Aprovado em: 16.4.2008

Rev Latino-am Enfermagem 2008 julho-agosto; 16(4):758-64

www.eerp.usp.br/rlae

Evaluation of products and services…

Cozin SK, Turrini RNT.

de um processo de avaliação contínua da qualidade dos

produtos e serviços oferecidos pelas bibliotecas do SIBi/

USP. Versão 2.0. São Paulo; 2002.

6. Parasuraman A, Zeithaml V, Berry LL. A conceptual model

of service quality and it’s implications for future research. J

Marketing. 1985;49(4):41-50.

7. Parasuraman A, Zeithaml V, Berry LL. SERVQUAL: A

Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Consumer Perceptions of

Service Quality. J Retailing.1988;64(1):12-40.

8. Hernon P, Altman E. Service quality in academic libraries.

Norwood: Ablex; 1996.

9. Parasuraman A. Marketing research. 2 ed. New York:

Addison-Wesley Publishing; 1991.

10. Kavan CB, Pitt LF, Watson RT. Measuring Service Quality

in Information Systems. Working Paper - Terry College of

Business. Athens (GA): University of Georgia; 1993.

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه 8 تیر1388ساعت 1:46 قبل از ظهر  توسط نی نی  | 

MTU از کلمات Maximum Transmission Unit اقتباس و نشاندهنده بيشترين حجم داده ای است که امکان ارسال آن از طريق لايه Data Link به عنوان يک موجوديت مجزاء وجود دارد. اندازه MTU بر حسب بايت اندازه گيري مي شود . در اکثر شبکه هاي اترنت از يک MTU با اندازه 1500 بايت استفاده مي گردد.

 

MTU يا همان Maximum Transmission Unit كار اين قسمت تنظيم سرعت دريافت و ارسال Packet ها يا همان بسته هاي اطلاعاتي است كه در هنگام كار با اينترنت ما كامپيوتر ما آنها را ارسال يا دريافت ميكند. در واقع ميتوان اين گونه تصور كرد كه سرعت اينترنت ما تحت كنترل MTU است.
قبل از اينكه هر گونه تغييري در اين قسمت انجام دهيد به موارد زير با دقت توجه كنيد و سعي كنيد خودتان و سيستمتان را با شرايط زير هماهنگ كنيد و يك حالت را براي خود در نظر بگيريد
:
اول اينكه دقيقا نوع خطوط تماس را مشخص كنيد. Dialup يا DSL يا ADSL يا T1 يا
...
دوم اينكه سعي كنيد خودتان را بشناسيد. آيا فردي هستيد كه فقط در حال استفاده عادي از اينترنت هستيد يعني فقط ايميل چك ميكنيد و از سايتها بازديد ميكنيد و ... و يا فردي هستيد كه همواره در حال دانلود نرم افزار و موزيك و ... هستيد و يا شايد هم فردي باشيد كه در حد ميانگين هر دو مورد را انجام ميدهيد
.
در نظر گرفتن موارد بالا براي تنظيم MTU بسيار مهم است و در نهايت در بهبود سرعت اينترنت شما بسيار موثر اند. مقدار MTU ميزان حمل و نقل اطلاعات در اينترنت را تنظيم ميكند. ميخواهم با يك مثال ساده طرز كار اين قسمت را برايتان شرح دهم
.
فرض كنيد شما ميخواهيد يك مقدار مشخص ماسه را از يك نقطه به نقطه اي ديگر جابجا كنيد و براي اين كار يك سطل خالي با ظرفيت معلوم در اختيار شما قرار ميدهند. حال شما به دو طريق ميتوانيد اين جابجايي را انجام دهيد. حالت اول اين است كه شما سطل را كاملا پر از ماسه كرده و جابجا ميكنيد.خوب در اين حالت به شما فشار زيادي وارد ميشود و سرعت جابجايي شما كم خواهد بود اما در قبال آن تعداد دفعات رفت و آمد شما كاهش ميابد. در حالت دوم شما سطل را فقط تا نصف يا كمتر پر ميكنيد و جابجايي را انجام ميدهيد. در اين حالت فشار كمتري به شما وارد ميشود و سرعت جابجايي شما بيشتر ميشود و در قبال آن تعداد دفعات رفت و آمدتان بيشتر ميشود
.
مقداري كه شما MTU اختصاص ميدهيد نيز دقيقا مانند همان ماسه اي است كه در سطل ريخته ميشود و MTU خود سطل است. تصميم اينكه شما از كدام حالت ميخواهيد استفاده كنيد به عهده خودتان است و
بسته به شرايطي كه داريد.

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه 24 فروردین1388ساعت 10:15 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی  | 

نشانی پروتکل اینترنت

به هریک از رایانه‌های متصل به هر شبکه ای که بر مبنای مدل مرجع TCP/IP (از جمله اينترنت ) کار می کند يک (و در مواقعی چند) نشانی به نام نشانی پروتکل اینترنت (Internet Protocol Address) یا به اختصار نشانی آی‌پی (IP Address) اختصاص داده می‌شود. پيام‌هائی که ديگر رايانه‌ها براي اين رايانه مي‌فرستند با اين شماره همراه است و رابط‌هاي سر راه آن را مانند «نشاني گيرنده» در نامه‌هاي پستي تعبير مي‌کنند تا بالاخره پيام به رابط شبکه رايانه مورد نظر برسد.

آدرس آی ‌پي نگارش 4

آدرس آي‌پي نگارش چهارم يک عدد 32 بيتي است که براي سادگي آن را به شکل چهار بخش عددي در مبناي ده مي نويسند که با نقطه از هم جدا مي‌شوند (مانند 199.211.45.5).اين روش آدرس¬دهي را دهدهي نقطه دار مي¬نامند هر يک از چهار بخش را يک هشتايي (Octet) مي¬گويند زيرا طول آن 8بيت(يا ۱ بايت) است ومي‌تواند عددي از ۰ تا ۲۵۵ باشد . پس ۲ بتوان 32 آدرس مختلف داريم.

اصولاً هر آدرس IP 32 بيتي به دو بخش تقسيم مي¬شود: يک پيشوند و يک پسوند. اين دو سطح به منظور ايجاد يک روش مسيريابي کارآمد طراحي شده¬است . پيشوند آدرس، شبکه¬اي را که کامپيوتر به آن متصل است مشخص مي¬کند (Network) در حاليکه پسوند يک کامپيوتر يکتا را روي شبکه مشخص مي¬کند(Host). يعني به هر شبکه در اينترنت يک مقدار يگانه که تحت عنوان شماره شبکه شناخته شده است ،اختصاص دارد.شماره ي شبکه به عنوان يک پيشوند در آدرس هر کامپيوتري که به شبکه وصل است ظاهر ميشود. بعلاوه به هر کامپيوتر روي يک شبکه، يک پسوند آدرس يگانه تخصيص يافته است.

هر آدرس کامل شامل يک پيشوند ويک پسوند است و طوري تخصيص داده ميشوند که يکتا باشند، بنابراين خاصيت اول تضمين ميگردد.اگر دو کامپيوتر به دو شبکه مختلف وصل شده باشند، آدرس هاي آنها پيشوندهاي متفاوت دارند.در صورتيکه دو کامپيوتر به يک شبکه وصل باشند آدرس هاي آنها داراي پسوندهاي مختلف است.

کلاسهای مختلف آی پی نگارش 4

سه کلاس پايه اي مختلف آدرس دهي IP براي شبکه هاي بزرگ، متوسط و کوچک وجود دارد. کلاس A براي شبکه هاي بزرگ،کلاس B براي شبکه هاي متوسط و کلاس C براي شبکه هاي کوچک. علاوه بر اين سه کلاس، کلاسD براي پخش چندگانه،ارسال اطلاعات به گروهي از کامپيوترها ،و کلاس E براي کارهاي جستجو وجود دارند.براي شرکت در پخش چندگانه IP مجموعه اي از کامپيوترها ي ميزبان بايد بر سر استفاده از آدرس پخش چندگانه به طور مشترک توافق داشته باشند.پس از تشکيل گروه پخش چندگانه يک کپي از هر بسته اطلاعاتي فرستاده شده به آدرس پخش چندگانه به هر کامپيوتر ميزبان در مجموعه تحويل ميگيرد. بنابراين نخستين 4 بيت (از سمت چپ) آدرس IP کلاس آن را مشخص مي¬کند. همچنين اگر نمايش نقطه¬دار را در نظر بگيريم از روي مقدار دهدهي بايت اول کلاس آن تشخيص داده مي¬شود

کلاس

طول بر حسب بیت

شروع

پایان

CIDR

subnet mask

Class A

    0

    0.0.0.0

127.255.255.255

/8

255.0.0.0

Class B

    10

128.0.0.0

191.255.255.255

/16

255.255.0.0

Class C

    110

192.0.0.0

223.255.255.255

/24

255.255.255.0

[[Class D [[multicast

    1110

224.0.0.0

239.255.255.255

/4

Not Defined

[[Class E [[reserved

    1111

240.0.0.0

255.255.255.255

/4

Not Defined

اصولاً در سیستم IP دهی به مشترکان، IPها به صورت تعدادی که توانی از عدد ۲ باشد (۲، ۴، ۸، ۱۶، ۳۲، ۶۴ و ۱۲۸) دسته بندی می‌شوند. لازم به ذکراست که در هر دسته IP اختصاص داده شده به مشترک IP‌ های اول و اخر بر اساس استاندارد معمولاً غیر قابل استفاده‌است و از باقیمانده IP‌ ها می‌توان در شبکه محصور شده استفاده کرد. به عنوان مثال در یک کلاس هشت‌تایی , حداکثر شش آدرس IP قابل استفاده‌است.

آی پی پرایوت [Private]

برای جلوگیری از هدر دهی آی پی در هر کلاس یک رنج آی پی برای شبکه های خصوصی ( مانند شبکه داخلی ادارات و شرکتها ) در نظر گرفته شده است که عبارت است از:

رنج آی پی

تعداد آدرس ها

کلاس

CIDR block

24- 10.0.0.0–10.255.255.255

16,777,216

Single Class A

10.0.0.0/8

20- 172.16.0.0–172.31.255.255

1,048,576

16 contiguous Class Bs

172.16.0.0/12

16- 169.254.0.0–169.254.255.255

65,536

Single Class B

169.254.0.0/16

16- 192.168.0.0–192.168.255.255

65,536

Single Class B

192.168.0.0/16

برای اتصال یک شبکه Private به اینترنت از پروتکل NAT استفاده می شود به این ترتیب که آدرس Private به یک یا چند آدرس منحصر به فرد Public ترجمه می شود.

آی پی استاتیک [Static] و دینامیک [Dynamic]

IP دینامیک با هر بار وصل شدن به شبکه داخلی و یا اینترنت تغییر میکند. اما استاتیک اینطور نیست. ای پی دینامیک در هر شبکه توسط یک DHCP Server که همانطور که از اسمش پیداست یک سرور است به کامپیوتر ها در شبکه اختصاص داده میشود یعنی وقتی شما به اینترنت و یا شبکه داخلی وصل میشوید DHCP Server به شما یک IP اختصاص میدهد.

DHCP Server میتواند یک سرویس در سیستم عامل های سرور باشد یا یک قطعه سخت افزاری مانند Router و یا Access Point در شبکه باشد.

براي ديدن آي‌پي رايانه خود مي‌توانيد از برنامه winipcfg.exe (در ويندوز ۹۵ و ۹۸ و ME) يا ipconfig.exe (در ويندوز ۲۰۰۰ و XP) استفاده کنيد. اگر از لينوکس يا يونيکس (يا سيستم‌هاي مبتني بر آن‌ها) استفاده مي‌کنيد، از دستور ifconfig استفاده کنيد.

آی پی نگارش 6

ورژن جدید ای پی که از 128 بیت تشکیل شده است و در سیستم عامل های جدید از جمله ویندوز ویستا به طور کامل پشیبانی می شود.

 

 

آدرس IP چيست؟

شنبه,20 اسفند 1387 (تعداد دفعات خوانده شده:812)

هر دستگاهي كه در اينترنت وجود دارد يا به آن متصل است يك شماره شناسايي منحصر به فرد دارد كه به آن آدرس IP يا شماره IP گفته مي شود.

يك آدرس IP چيزي مثل اين است: 127. 55. 27. 216

تركيبي از 4.3 ميليارد آدرس IP

همانطور كه در بالا ذكر شد آدرسهاي IP براي قابل فهم بودن افراد معمولاً به صورت دسيمال (دهدهي) بيان مي شوند. كه با نقطه از يكديگر جدا شده اند. اما كامپيوتر ها با شكل باينري (دودويي) اعداد سروكار دارد و براي ارتباط با يكديگر آنرا در قالب صفر و يك بيان مي كنند مانند مثال زير:

11011000. 00011011. 00111101. 10001001

8تا 8تا 8تا 8تا

چهار عدد در يك آدرس IP اكت (به معناي هشتايي) ناميده مي شوند، چون هر عدد به تنهايي از 8 عدد باينري تشكيل شده است. با تركيب همه اعداد 32 عدد باينري خواهيم داشت. آدرس IP از اعداد 32 بيتي تشكيل شده است. كه هر كدام از 8 وضعيت مي تواند 0 يا 1 باشد. يعني براي هر هشتايي 2 به توان 8 تا، 256 عدد مخلتف را مي توان در نظر گرفت. پس هر عدد كه بين نقطه ها قرار مي گيرد مي تواند بين 0 ــ 255 باشد. با توجه به اين كه 4 عدد داريم كه با نقطه از هم جدا مي شوند مجموعاً 2 به توان 32 يا مجموعاً 4294967296 عدد منحصر به فرد خواهيم داشت.

در نتيجه در حدود 4.3 ميليارد عدد را مي توان براي آدرسهاي IP منحصر به فرد معين كرد البته با صرفنظر از تعدادي آدرس معين كه استفاده از آنها براي عموم محدود شده است. مثلاً آدرس IP به صورت 0. 0. 0. 0 براي شبكه default و آدرس 255. 255. 255. 255 براي broad cast رزرو شده اند.

تركيب اين اعداد فقط براي دادن يك شماره منحصر به فرد و شناسايي نيست بلكه براي ايجاد كلاسهايي است كه بتوان آنها را به يك شغل، دولت، منطقه خاص و غيره نسبت داد.

اعداد بين نقطه ها يا اكت ها (هشتايي) به دو قسمت تقسيم مي شوند. شبكه و هاست. اولين عدد بين نقطه ها مربوط به شبكه است. اين عدد براي شناسايي يك شبكه كه يك كامپيوتر به آن متصل است استفاده مي شود.

هاست (كه گاهي با نام Node شناخته مي شود) كامپيوتري كه واقعاً در شبكه وجود دارد مشخص مي كند. قسمت مربوط به هاست معمولاً آخرين عدد است. 5 كلاس IP به علاوه آدرسهاي خاص مشخص وجود دارد:

ــ default network: يا شبكه پيش فرض كه آدرس IP آن 0. 0. 0. 0 است.

ــ كلاس A: اين كلاس براي شبكه هاي خيلي بزرگ است. مانند يك كمپاني عظيم بين المللي كه داراي يك شبكه بزرگ است. آدرسهاي IP كه اعداد اول آنها (اولين اكت) از 1 تا 126 باشد قسمتي از اين شبكه هستند. سه عدد بعدي براي شناسايي Host به كار مي روند. اين بدان معناست كه 126 شبكه كلاس A وجود دارند كه هر كدام 16777214 هاست و مجموعاً 2 به توان 31 آدرس IP منحصر به فرد مي توان ساخت. اما نيمي از اين تعداد آدرس IP قابل دسترسي است. در شبكه هاي كلاس A اولين عدد باينري هميشه صفر است.

آدرس خود يا loopback: اين آدرس IP عبارتست از 127. 0. 0. 1 با اين آدرس IP يك كامپيوتر مي تواند پيغامي را براي خودش ارسال كند. اين آدرس معمولاً براي عيب يابي شبكه و تست كردن آن استفاده مي شود.

 

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه 24 فروردین1388ساعت 10:14 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی  | 

زندگی احساس قشنگ کبوتر هاست .

زندگی باز شدن پنجرهاست

زندگی در گذر است .

زندگی شکفتن و بسته شدن است.

زندگی شروع دوباره یکی شدنهاست.

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه 20 آذر1385ساعت 12:27 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی  | 

وقتی همدیگر را دوست داریم تسلیم شدن نیز نوع

مهمی از بخشيدن است

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه 20 آذر1385ساعت 12:15 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی  | 

اگر هر کس مفهوم عشق را به عمل تبدیل می کرد دنیا جای بهتری میشد
+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه 20 آذر1385ساعت 12:8 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی  | 

ارام باش تفکر کن توکل کن سپس استین ها را بالا بزن. انوقت دستان خدا

را می بینی که زودتر از تو دست به کار شده اند

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عشق احساسی بی نهایت است که صبر دانش و سرچشمه های درونی مارا به

مبارزه  می طلبد

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه 20 آذر1385ساعت 11:48 قبل از ظهر  توسط نی نی  | 

عشق مانند جنگ است كه آغاز آن آسان و پايان دادن آن دشوار

است.                                                                 ه . ل . مكن

+ نوشته شده در  چهارشنبه 15 آذر1385ساعت 10:32 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

عشق آتشي روانسوزي است كه هر قدر شعله آن بيشتر شود

زودتر خاموش ميگردد.                                       ارسكارد

+ نوشته شده در  چهارشنبه 15 آذر1385ساعت 10:31 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

عشق عطشي است كه وقتي سيراب شد بر دلت ميماند و باعث

سو ء هاضمه ميشود.                                      اوريانا فالاچي

+ نوشته شده در  چهارشنبه 15 آذر1385ساعت 10:30 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

عشق بايد شادي آور باشد نه رنج آور.                         ناپلئون

+ نوشته شده در  چهارشنبه 15 آذر1385ساعت 10:29 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

عشق اصل همه چيز و دليل همه چيز و خاتمه همه چيز

است .                                                             لاكورد

+ نوشته شده در  چهارشنبه 15 آذر1385ساعت 10:29 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

عشق غالباً يكنوع عذاب است اما محروم بودن از آن مرگ

است .                                                               شكسپير

+ نوشته شده در  چهارشنبه 15 آذر1385ساعت 10:27 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

عشق و سختي بهترين وسيله آزمايش زندگي زناشويي

است .                                                           اسمايلز

+ نوشته شده در  چهارشنبه 15 آذر1385ساعت 10:26 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

عشق تنها مرضي است كه بيمار از آن لذت ميبرد . افلاطون

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه 13 آذر1385ساعت 10:17 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

عشق بزرگ در پي تنفر بزرگ بوجود مي آيد .         گرجستاني

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه 13 آذر1385ساعت 10:16 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

عشق وقتي بحرف عقل گوش ميكند كه رفته باشد .

                                                                     فرانسوا زماگان

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه 13 آذر1385ساعت 10:16 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

عشق راهنماي زندگي و تعيين كننده پيشرفت آنست .        

                                                          غلامحسين ذوالفقاري

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه 13 آذر1385ساعت 10:15 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

طبيعت معشوق بي آزار و مهربان كساني است كه از معشوقان

ديگر سر خورده اند.                                                  حجازي

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه 13 آذر1385ساعت 10:14 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

شجاعت مانند عشق از اميد تغذيه ميكند .                    ناپلئون

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه 13 آذر1385ساعت 10:13 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

دنيا تاتر عشق است .                                              مثل عبري

+ نوشته شده در  یکشنبه 12 آذر1385ساعت 11:6 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

در عشق سكوت بهتر از نطق و بيان اداي مقصود ميكند .

                                                                           مثل ژاپوني

+ نوشته شده در  یکشنبه 12 آذر1385ساعت 11:5 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

در يك عشق هزار مصيبت نهفته است .                   مثل عربي

+ نوشته شده در  یکشنبه 12 آذر1385ساعت 11:3 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

 

لطفاً نظريات خودتان را دراين محل قرار

دهيد.

+ نوشته شده در  یکشنبه 12 آذر1385ساعت 6:56 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی  | 

عشق آتش است اگر نباشد خانه سرد و تاريك است اما اگر بيجا

بيفتد خانه و خانمان را ميسوزاند.                                      تن

+ نوشته شده در  یکشنبه 12 آذر1385ساعت 6:53 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

انديشه ها ، رويا ها ، آه كشيدنها ، آرزو ها و اشكها از ملازمان

جدايي ناپذير عشق ميباشند.                                       شكسپير

+ نوشته شده در  جمعه 10 آذر1385ساعت 6:6 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

چون منصور حلاج را بر دار بردند يكي از شاگردانش گريان و

مويان پرسيد . عشق چيست؟ منصور لبخند تلخي زد و گفت :

امروز بين ، فردا بين و باز پسين فردا بين .  پس در آن روز بر

دارش زدند و ديگر روزش بسوختند و روز سوم خاكسترش را

 بر باد دادند.                                                   تذكره الاولياء

+ نوشته شده در  جمعه 10 آذر1385ساعت 6:1 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

حقيقي ترين حقيقتها عشق است                             بارلبي

+ نوشته شده در  جمعه 10 آذر1385ساعت 5:47 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

در عشق پيروز كسي است كه پاي به فرار مینهد.      ناپلئون

+ نوشته شده در  جمعه 10 آذر1385ساعت 5:46 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

دنيا از عاشق خود فرار ميكند.                            مثل ايتاليايي

 

+ نوشته شده در  جمعه 10 آذر1385ساعت 5:46 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

در يك عشق هزار مصيبت نهفته است .                مثل عربي

+ نوشته شده در  جمعه 10 آذر1385ساعت 5:45 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

اميد مادر ايمان است .                                                  لاندور

+ نوشته شده در  جمعه 10 آذر1385ساعت 3:50 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

اگر ميخواهي خوشبخت باشي جز آنكه برايت مهياست آرزو

نكن .                                                                لارشفوگوله

+ نوشته شده در  جمعه 10 آذر1385ساعت 3:46 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی 

آنجا كه ازدواجي بدون عشق صورت بگيرد حتما عشقي بدون

ازدواج در آن رخنه خواهد كرد                   بنيامين فراكلين

+ نوشته شده در  جمعه 10 آذر1385ساعت 2:38 بعد از ظهر  توسط نی نی